Men of Excellence

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Friday Sermon

8 February 2019

Delivered from Baitul Futuh Mosque

Men of Excellence
 

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After reciting the Tashahud, Ta‘awuz, and Surah al-Fatihah, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih Vaa stated:
 

The first of the companions whom I shall relate the accounts of today is Hazrat Abu Mulailra bin al-Az‘ar. His mother’s name was Umme Amr Bint Ashraf. He belonged to the Aus tribe of the Ansar. He had the honour of participating in the Battles of Badr and Uhud.  (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 353, Abu Mulail bin Al-Az’ar, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 6, p. 295, Abu Malail bin Al-Az’arra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003)

According to a narration, his brother Hazrat Abu Habibra bin Az‘arra also participated in the Battle of Badr and all the other Battles as well. (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 6, p. 65, Abu Habeeb bin Al-Az’arra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003)

The second Companion to be mentioned is Hazrat Anas bin Mu‘az Ansarira. In some narrations, his name has also been reported to be Unais. He belonged to the Banu Najjar clan of the Khazraj tribe of the Ansar. His mother’s name was Umm Unas bint Khalid. He participated in all of the battles along with the Holy Prophetsa including Badr, Uhud and Khandaq. His brother Hazrat Ubayy bin Mu‘azra also participated in the Battle of Uhud along with him. There are varying opinions regarding the date of his demise. In one of the narrations it is mentioned that he died during the caliphate of Hazrat Usmanra. Whereas in another narration, it is mentioned that Hazrat Anas bin Mu‘azra and his brother, Hazrat Ubayy bin Mu‘azra, were martyred during the incident of Bir-e-Ma‘unah. (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 381, Anas bin Mu’adhra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 1, p. 299, Anas bin Mu’adh bin Anasra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003)

The next companion to be mentioned is Hazrat Abu Shaikh Ubayy bin Thabitra. Hazrat Ubayy bin Thabitra belonged to the Banu Adi clan of the Khazraj tribe of the Ansar. He was commonly known by his title of Abu Shaikh. According to another narration, this was his son’s title. His mother’s name was Sukhtah bint Haritha. Hazrat Ubayy bin Thabitra was the brother of Hazrat Hassaan bin Thabitra and Hazrat Aus bin Thabitra. He participated in the Battles of Badr and Uhud. He passed away in the incident of Bir-e-Ma‘unah. 

According to various books of history, there are varying opinions as to whether Hazrat Ubayy bin Thabitra participated in the Battle of Badr or not. Ibn Ishaq says that Hazrat Ubayy bin Thabitra passed away during the period of Jahiliyyah [prior to Islam] and that the individual who participated in the Battles of Uhud and Badr was in fact his son, Abu Shaikh Bin Ubayy bin Thabit. However, Allamah ibn Hisham has counted Hazrat Abu Shaikh Ubayy Bin Thabitra among those who participated in the Battle of Badr. Regarding the demise of Hazrat Ubayy bin Thabitra, it is reported in some narrations that he passed away on the day of the incident of Bir-e-Ma‘unah. Other narrations, however, mention that he passed away on the day of the Battle of Uhud. In any case, we also learn from some narrations that the companion who was martyred on the day of the Battle of Uhud was not him, but rather his brother Hazrat Aus bin Thabitra. (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 382, Abu Shaikh Abi bin Thabitra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 1, pp. 165-166, Abi bin Thabitra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 1, p. 179, Abi bin Thabitra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1995) (Sirat ibn Hisham, p. 340, Man Hadara Badran, Dar ibn Hazm, Beirut, 2009)

Another companion is Hazrat Abu Burda bin Nayyaarra. His title was Abu Burdah. Although he was more commonly known by his title, however his actual name was Hani. According to a narration, his name is also mentioned as Haris and in another narration it is mentioned as Malik. He belonged to the Bali clan of the tribe of Banu Quza‘ah. Hazrat Abu Burdahra was the maternal uncle of Hazrat Baraa bin Aazibra. According to another narration, Hazrat Abu Burdahra was the paternal uncle of Hazrat Baraa bin Aazibra. He participated in the Second Bai‘at at Aqabah. Moreover, he also participated in all of the battles along with the Holy Prophetsa including the battles of Badr, Uhud and Khandaq. On the day of the victory of Mecca, Hazrat Abu Burdara was holding the flag of Banu Haritha. (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 344, Abu Burdah bin Niyarra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) (Al-Isabatu Fi Tamyiz Al-Sahaba, Vol. 7, pp. 31-32, Abu Burdah bin Niyarra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1995) (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 5, p. 358, Hani bin Niyarra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003)

When Hazrat Absra and Hazrat Abu Burdara accepted Islam, both of them destroyed the idols of the tribe of Banu Haritha, (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 343, Abu Abas bin Jabarra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) that is, the idols belonging to their own tribe. 

Hazrat Abu Umamara narrates that when the Holy Prophetsa decided to depart towards Badr for the Battle of Badr, Hazrat Abu Umamara also made preparations in order to accompany the Holy Prophetsa. Upon this, his maternal uncle, Hazrat Abu Burdara bin Niyar said that he should stay behind in order to take care of his mother. His mother was ill at the time and he advised him to stay behind. Hazrat Abu Umamara was passionate to go forth for battle as an attack had been launched against Islam. Hence, he replied, “She is your sister, therefore you should remain behind instead of asking me.” When this matter was presented to the Holy Prophetsa, he instructed Hazrat Abu Umamara, i.e. the son, to stay behind and Hazrat Abu Burdara went along with the army. When the Holy Prophetsa returned from the battle, the mother of Hazrat Abu Umama had passed away and the Holy Prophetsa offered her funeral prayer. (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 6, p. 15, Abu Umamah bin Tha’labahra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003)

On the day of the Battle of Uhud, the Muslims had two horses. One horse, by the name As-Saqb, which was with the Holy Prophetsa and the other horse, by the name Mulavi‘, and this was with Hazrat Abu Burdara. (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 1, p. 380, Dhikru Khaili Rasulillahsa Wa Dawaabihi, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) 

Hazrat Abu Burdara bin Niyar relates that the Holy Prophetsa went to visit some of the tribes and prayed for them. However, he left out one tribe and did not go to them. The people of that tribe felt apprehensive about this and wanted to find out why this was the case. Therefore, they searched the belongings of one of their people and found a necklace in his sack that he had stolen. Hence, they returned it and subsequently, the Holy Prophetsa came to them as well and also prayed for them. (Al-Mu’jam Al-Kabir Li Al-Tabarani, Vol. 22, p. 195, Maa Asnadahu Abu Burdah bin Niyarra, Hadith 511, Dar Ihyaa Al-Turath Al-Arabi, Beirut, 2002)

Hazrat Abu Burdara participated in all the battles alongside Hazrat Alira. He passed away in the early part of Hazrat Mu‘awiyah’sra era. There are various narrations regarding the year of his demise. According to one narration, he passed away in the 41 AH, while 42 AH and 45 AH have also been mentioned in other narrations. (Al-Isabatu Fi Tamyiz Al-Sahaba, Vol. 7, p. 32, Abu Burdahra bin Niyar, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1995)

Hazrat Baraa bin Azibra narrates that the Holy Prophetsa addressed them following the prayer of Eid-ul-Adha and stated, “The person who prayed in the manner we prayed and offered a sacrifice in the manner we did, he has indeed performed his sacrifice correctly. However, as for the person who offered the sacrifice prior to the prayer, then that will not be considered as a sacrifice, rather it is a mere slaughter for its meat.” If the sacrifice is offered before the prayer then that is equivalent to one who simply slaughters an animal for the purpose of its meat. 

Upon this, Hazrat Abu Burdara bin Niyar (the companion whose account is being mentioned), stood up and said to the Holy Prophetsa, “O Prophetsa of Allah! I offered a sacrifice prior to the prayer and considered this day for eating and drinking. Therefore, I did this immediately and ate while also feeding my family and neighbours.” The Holy Prophetsa replied: “This goat was merely slaughtered for its meat. This is not a sacrifice on your part.” Upon this, Hazrat Abu Burdara replied that he had some young goats that were a year old and they were better than two goats. (That is, they are nurtured well and even though they are only a year old, they are healthy and better than two mature goats.) Will it be sufficient on my behalf to sacrifice them?” The Holy Prophetsa said: “Yes, you may do so. However, no one will be permitted to do this after you”. (Sahih Bukhari, Kitab Al-Eidain, Bab Kalam Al-Imam Wa Al-Nas Fi Al-Khutbah Al-Eid…, Hadith 983) That is, he was permitted to do so in that instance. However, no one after him had permission to do the same. 

Other Ahadith [sayings of the Holy Prophetsa] also state the same, that is, firstly, the sacrifice should be offered after the Eid [prayer] and secondly, that the goat should be of a certain age. Nevertheless, in relation to this statement of the Holy Prophetsa in which he said that after Hazrat Abu Burdara no one else would be permitted to do so, a question was once raised in a gathering with the Promised Messiahas as to what the age of a goat should be at the time of sacrifice. Hazrat Khalifatul-Masih I, Hazrat Maulana Nuruddinra was also present and the Promised Messiahas asked him to reply to the question.  Upon this, he said that according to the Ahl-e-Hadith sect, it should be at least two years old. (Malfuzat, Vol. 10, p. 100)

In our [Muslim] countries, the tradition is that it is necessary for the goat to have two large teeth visible at the front. Nevertheless, at that time the Holy Prophetsa said to Hazrat Abu Burdara that he would accept his sacrifice of the one year old goat. However, this would not be accepted from anyone else after him. The animal to be scarified should be a mature male or female goat. This is the very tradition that is followed by the Jamaat and found in our edicts on this issue as mentioned by the Promised Messiahas

The next companion to be mentioned is Hazrat As‘adra bin Yazid. Hazrat As‘ad’sra father was Yazid bin Al-Faqi‘ and he belonged to the branch of Banu Zuraiq of the Ansar tribe of Khazraj. He participated alongside the Holy Prophetsa in the battles of Badr and Uhud. Allama ibn Ishaq has recorded the name of Sa‘d bin Yazid, instead of As‘ad among the companions of Badr. There are various opinions regarding the name of As‘ad bin Yazid. Some have stated the following names: Sa‘d bin Zaid, Sa‘id bin Al-Faqi‘ and Sa‘d bin Yazid. (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 445, As’ad bin Yazidra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 2, p. 450, Sa’d bin Al-Fakahra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003)

Another companion who took part in the Battle of Badr is by the name of Hazrat Tamim bin Ya‘ar Ansarira. Hazrat Tamim’sra father was Ya‘ar. He belonged to the branch of Banu Jadara bin ‘Auf bin Al-Harith of the Ansar tribe of the Khazraj. He participated alongside the Holy Prophetsa in the battles of Badr and Uhud. A son by the name of Rib‘i and a daughter by the name of Jamila were among the children of Hazrat Tamimra. His mother belonged to the tribe of Banu Amr. (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 407, Tamim bin Ya’arra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990)

The next Companion to be mentioned is Hazrat Aus bin Thabit bin Munzirra, who was from among the Ansar. His title was Abu Shaddad. Hazrat Aus’ra father was Thabit and his mother was Sukhta bint Haritha. He was the father of the well-known companion, Hazrat Shaddad bin Ausra. He belonged to the Ansar tribe of Banu Amr bin Malik bin Najjar. 

He participated in the second pledge at Aqabah and thus accepted Islam at that occasion. He participated alongside the Holy Prophetsa in the battles of Badr and Uhud. The well-known poet, Hazrat Hassan bin Thabitra and Hazrat Ubai bin Thabitra were his brothers. When Hazrat Usman bin Affanra migrated to Medina, he stayed at his home. 

The Holy Prophetsa formed a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Usman bin ‘Affanra and Hazrat Aus bin Thabitra. In regard to his demise, Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Umaarah Ansari says that he was martyred during the Battle of Uhud. There are some who disagree with this, but their narrations are weak. (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 382, 41, As’ad bin Affanra, Aus bin Thabitra Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990)

The next companion to be mentioned is Hazrat Thabit bin Khansaara. He belonged to the tribe of Banu Ghanam bin Adi bin Najjar. He had the honour to participate in the Battle of Badr. This is all that is known about him. (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 389, Thabit bin Khansaara, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990)

Hazrat Aus bin Samitra was another Companion who participated in the Battle of Badr. Hazrat Aus bin Samitra was the brother of Hazrat Abadah bin Samitra. Hazrat Ausra participated in the Battle of Badr, Uhud and all other battles alongside the Holy Prophetsa. The Holy Prophetsa established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Aus bin Samitra and Hazrat Mursad bin Abi Mursad Al-Ghanawira

It is stated in narrations that on one occasion, Hazrat Ausra expressed Zihar towards his wife, Khuwalia bint Malik. (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 413, Aus bin Samitra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 1, p. 323, Aus bin Samitra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) 

According to ancient Arab customs, Zihar was when an individual would declare his wife to be like his own mother or sister, as a way of severing marital ties with her. Islam however abolished this custom and has stated that one cannot seek divorce merely through uttering this statement, i.e. by simply declaring one’s wife to be like one’s own mother or sister. This is indeed a deplorable act and as a punishment, Islam has stated that one ought to atone for this error. 

Before he could atone for this error, Hazrat Ausra re-established relations with his wife. Upon this, the Holy Prophetsa stated that this was unlawful and instructed him to distribute 15 Saa‘ [a unit of measurement equal to approximately 2.75 kg] of barley amongst 60 poor people. In other words, the atonement for such an act is to feed 60 poor people.  

Regarding Zihar, the Quranic injunction is as follows; God Almighty says: 

اَلَّذِيۡنَ يُظٰهِرُوۡنَ مِنۡكُمۡ مِّنۡ  نِّسَآئِهِمۡ مَّا هُنَّ  اُمَّهٰتِهِمۡ ط اِنۡ  اُمَّهٰتُهُمۡ  اِلَّا الِّٰٓيۡٔ وَلَدۡنَهُمۡ ط وَ اِنَّهُمۡ  لَيَقُوۡلُوۡنَ مُنۡكَرًا مِّنَ الۡقَوۡلِ وَ زُوۡرًا طوَ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ لَعَفُوٌّ غَفُوۡرٌ

وَ الَّذِيۡنَ يُظٰهِرُوۡنَ مِنۡ نِّسَآئِهِمۡ ثُمَّ يَعُوۡدُوۡنَ لِمَا قَالُوۡا فَتَحۡرِيۡرُ  رَقَبَةٍ  مِّنۡ قَبۡلِ  اَنۡ يَّتَمَآسَّا طذٰلِكُمۡ تُوۡعَظُوۡنَ بِهٖط وَ اللّٰهُ  بِمَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ  خَبِيۡرٌ

فَمَنۡ  لَّمۡ يَجِدۡ فَصِيَامُ شَهۡرَيۡنِ مُتَتَابِعَيۡنِ مِنۡ قَبۡلِ اَنۡ يَّتَمَآسَّا ۚ فَمَنۡ لَّمۡ  يَسۡتَطِعۡ  فَاِطۡعَامُ سِتِّيۡنَ مِسۡكِيۡنًاط ذٰلِكَ لِتُؤۡمِنُوۡا بِاللّٰهِ وَ رَسُوۡلِهٖ ط  وَ تِلۡكَ حُدُوۡدُ اللّٰهِ ط وَ لِلۡكٰفِرِيۡنَ  عَذَابٌ  اَلِيۡمٌ

(Surah al-Mujadilah, Ch.58: V.3-5)

“Those among you who put away their wives by calling them mothers — they do not become their mothers; their mothers are only those who gave them birth; and they certainly utter words that are manifestly evil and untrue; but surely Allah is the Effacer of sins, Most Forgiving. As to those who call their wives mothers, and then would go back on what they have said, the penalty for it is the freeing of a slave before they touch each other.” (In those days, there were slaves and therefore the atonement for this was to free a slave.) “This is what you are admonished with. And Allah is Well-Aware of what you do. But whoso does not find one” (that is if one does not have the capacity to free a slave,) “he must fast for two successive months, before they touch each other. And whoso is not able to do so, should feed sixty poor people. This is so that you may truly believe in Allah and His Messenger. And these are the limits prescribed by Allah; and for the disbelievers is a painful punishment.”

The Promised Messiahas has also rendered its translation which is as follows: 

“A person who declares his wife to be a mother does not in reality become his mother because his mother can only be the one who gave birth to him. Hence, what they say is completely inappropriate and untrue. However, God Almighty grants pardon and is forgiving. Those who call their wives their mother and seek to return to return to them should first free one slave. This is what God the All-knowing has commanded. If such a person is unable to free a slave, then they should fast for two consecutive months before re-establishing relations with their wife. If they are unable to fast, then they should feed sixty poor people.” (Arya Dharam, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 10, p. 50)

Hazrat Aus’ra wife, Hazrat Khuwailah bint Maalik bin Tha‘labara, narrates: 

“My husband, Aus bin Samitra expressed Zihar in relation to me. I took my complaint to the Holy Prophetsa and whilst counselling me, he said, ‘Instil the fear of God in you, for he [i.e. her husband] is also your paternal uncle’s son.’ However, I remained persistent regarding this matter until the following verse of the Holy Quran was revealed.”

The Holy Prophetsa asked her how she could be his mother when he was her paternal uncle’s son, and she was also his wife.

However, she further states: “In any case, I insisted on this until this verse of the Holy Quran was revealed:

قَدۡ سَمِعَ  اللّٰهُ  قَوۡلَ  الَّتِيۡ تُجَادِلُكَ فِيۡ زَوۡجِهَا وَ تَشۡتَكِيۡۤ  اِلَي اللّٰهِ وَ اللّٰهُ يَسۡمَعُ  تَحَاوُرَكُمَا ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ  سَمِيۡعٌۢ بَصِيۡرٌ  

“Allah has indeed heard the speech of her who pleads with thee concerning her husband…” (Surah al-Mujadila, Ch.58: V.2)

Thus, the Holy Prophetsa stated her husband ought to free a slave as it has been commanded in the verse of the Holy Quran and the detail pertaining to this has just been mentioned earlier, that is that one ought to free a slave as a penalty. Hazrat Khuwailah bint Maalik bin Tha‘labara further states: 

“I said to the Holy Prophetsa, ‘He does not have the means to do so, for he has little provisions.’ The Holy Prophetsa then said, ‘Then he should fast for two consecutive months.’ I submitted, ‘O Messengersa of Allah, he is unable to fast consecutively due to his old age. He does not have the strength to do so.’ The Holy Prophetsa then stated, ‘Then he should feed sixty poor people.’ I said, ‘He does not have any wealth with which he could do this and offer Sadaqa (charity).’” 

Khuwailahra further states: 

“A sack of dates was delivered to the Holy Prophetsa while I was sitting there. So I said: ‘O Prophetsa of Allah, I can support him with the second sack of dates.’ Meaning that if I could get this, then we would be able to arrange for the second one ourselves. The Holy Prophetsa said: ‘Very well, go ahead and take this bag and feed sixty poor people on his behalf and then return to your uncle’s son.’” (Sunan Abi Daud, Kitab Al-Talaq, Bab Fi Al-Zihar, Hadith 2214) This means to return to her husband and assure her that she did not become his mother by him simply uttering such words. Thus, by relating the accounts of the Companions, many other issues are also resolved. 

Hazrat Ibn Abbasra narrates: “The very first Zihar – the practice of labelling one’s wife as one’s mother – that took place in Islam was by Hazrat Aus bin Samitra. He was married to his paternal Uncle’s daughter and he expressed Zihar towards her.” (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 1, p. 323, Aus bin Samitra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003)

In any case, these are the limits set by God Almighty, and this matter was also presented before the Promised Messiahas as well and he prescribed the same punishment. A similar matter was presented before Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IIra, and he stated that this was the appropriate penalty for this, unless such a person was extremely poor and did not have the means, he would instead seek repentance and fulfil the requirements of the punishment to the best of his means. In any case, God Almighty has prescribed the limits in regard to one who declares his wife to be his mother or sister. 

Some have the habit of fighting over very petty matters and saying to their wives, “You are forbidden for me” or “You are my mother”, or they take similar oaths. So these are the types of people who exceed the prescribed limits and therefore receive the punishment which God Almighty has stated, and that is to either free a slave, observe fasts or feed the poor. 

Hazrat Aus bin Samitra was also a poet. Hazrat Aus bin Samitra and Shadad bin Aus Ansari took residence in Baitul Maqdas. Hazrat Ausra passed away in Palestine in 34 AH at the age of 72. (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 1, p. 323, Aus bin Samitra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003)

Another companion is Hazrat Arqam bin Abi Arqamra. His title was Abu Abdullah. Hazrat Arqam’sra mother was Umaimah bint Harith. According to other narrations, her name was Tamazir bint Huzaim and Safiya bint Harith as well. Hazrat Arqamra was from the Banu Makhzoom tribe. He was amongst the first companions to accept Islam. According to some sources, eleven people had entered the fold of Islam at the time of his acceptance of Islam. Some are of the opinion that he was the seventh person to accept Islam. Hazrat Urwa bin Zubair narrates: “Hazrat Arqamra, Hazrat Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrahra and Hazrat Usman bin Maz‘unra accepted Islam together at the same time.” 

Hazrat Arqamra owned a house outside of Mecca near the mountain of Safa which is well-renowned in history by the name of “Dar-e-Arqam” in which the Holy Prophetsa and the early Muslims would perform worship. This was the place where Hazrat Umarra accepted Islam after which the total number of Muslims was forty. After Hazrat Umar’sra acceptance of Islam, Muslims began to practise their faith openly. This house remained under the ownership of Hazrat Arqamra and later his grandsons sold this house to Abu Ja‘far Mansoor. (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 1, p. 187, Arqam bin Abi Al-Arqamra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) (Al-Isabatu Fi Tamyiz Al-Sahaba, Vol. 1, p. 197, Arqam bin Abi Al-Arqamra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1995) (Mustadrak Ala Al-Sahihain, Vol. 3, p. 574, Kitab Marifatu Al-Sahaba, Dhikru Arqam bin Abi Al-Arqamra, Dar-ul-KutubIlmiyyah, Beirut, 2002)

Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra has provided details about this in Sirat Khatamun Nabiyyin. As regards the first centre of Islam – Dar-e-Arqam – Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra writes: 

“Perhaps during these days, the Holy Prophetsa thought that a centre for the propagation of Islam be established in Mecca, where Muslims could gather without any hindrance to offer their prayers, etc., and where the propagation of Islam could formally yet quietly take place with peace and calm. For this purpose, a location was required which could serve as a headquarters. Thus, the Holy Prophetsa selected the house of a new Muslim named Arqam bin Abi Arqamra, which was situated at the foot of Mount Safa. Thereafter, the Muslims would gather here, and it is here that they would offer their Salat. It is here that seekers of truth would come and where the Holy Prophetsa would preach the religion of Islam to them (i.e. those who were in search of faith would come here in order to learn about Islam and understand the religion, or simply to derive blessings from the company of the Holy Prophetsa). It is for this reason that this house has found reverence in the history of Islam, and is renowned by the name “Darul-Islam”. The Holy Prophetsa worked in Dar-e-Arqam for approximately three years. (In other words, the Holy Prophetsa made it the headquarters in the fourth year of his prophethood and remained here until the end of the sixth year of his prophethood.) Historians write that the last person to accept Islam in Dar-e-Arqam was Hazrat Umarra, the acceptance of whom strengthened the Muslims to the extent that they left Dar-e-Arqam and began to preach openly.” (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra, p. 129)

After the migration to Medina, the Holy Prophetsa established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Arqamra and Hazrat Abu Talha Zaid bin Sahlra (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 185, Arqam bin Abi Al-Arqamra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990). 

Hazrat Arqamra participated in the Battle of Badr alongside the Holy Prophetsa and the Holy Prophetsa gave him a sword from the spoils of the war at Badr. Hazrat Arqamra fought in the battles of Badr, Uhud and all other battles with the Holy Prophetsa and the Holy Prophetsa also gave him a house in Medina. On one occasion, the Holy Prophetsa appointed him to oversee the collection of Sadaqa [charity]. (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 1, p. 198, Arqam bin Abi Al-Arqamra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) (Al-Isabatu Fi Tamyiz Al-Sahaba, Vol. 1, p. 187, Arqam bin Abi Al-Arqamra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1995)  

It is also noted in history that Hazrat Arqamra was among the participants of the Hilful Fudul (Al-Isti‘aab Fi Ma’rifati Al-Sahaba, Vol. 1, p. 131, Arqam bin Abi Al-Arqamra, Dar-ul-Jeel, Beirut, 1992) the pact made by certain prominent Meccans prior to Islam, in order to help the poor, and in which the Holy Prophetsa was also a part of. Usman bin Arqam, the son of Hazrat Arqamra, relates: “My father passed away in 53 AH at the age of 83.” Some have said that he passed away in 55 AH. There are conflicting views with regard to his age; some say he was 80 years of age or a little more.  

Hazrat Arqamra instructed that his funeral prayer be led by Hazrat Sa‘d bin Abi Waqasra who was a companion. However, at the time of his demise, Hazrat Sa‘dra was in Aqeeq, which was quite a distance away. Marwan then asked how a companion of the Holy Prophetsa could not be buried due to someone not being present; in other words, how could a companion’s body be placed aside and not be buried until that particular person came. In saying this, he wanted to lead the funeral prayer himself, but Ubaidullah bin Arqam did not accept the proposal of Marwan and the funeral prayer of Hazrat Arqamra was led by Hazrat Sa‘d bin Abi Waqasra upon his arrival and he was buried in Jannatul Baqi. (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 1, p. 188, Arqam bin Abi Al-Arqamra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) 

There is another narration with regard to him that Hazrat Arqamra was preparing to travel to Baitul Maqdas and went to the Holy Prophetsa to gain his permission to embark on this journey. The Holy Prophetsa enquired, “Are you travelling to Baitul Maqdas for a necessary task or for business purposes?” Hazrat Arqamra replied, “O Messengersa of Allah, may my mother and father be sacrificed for you! I do not go there for something urgent, nor for any trade, I only wish to offer my prayers at Baitul Maqdas.” Thereupon the Holy Prophetsa answered, “A prayer of mine here in this mosque [i.e. in Medina] is greater than a thousand prayers offered in any other mosques, except the Ka‘bah.” Upon this, Hazrat Arqamra changed his mind. (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 1, p. 187, Arqam bin Abi Al-Arqamra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003)

Another companion whom I shall mention is Hazrat Basbas bin Amrra. According to one source, his name was Basbas bin Bishar. Hazrat Basbasra Juhani belonged to the Banu Sa‘idah bin Ka‘b bin Khazraj tribe of the Ansar. But according to Urwah bin Zubair, he belonged to the Banu Tureef bin Khazraj tribe. Hazrat Basbasra participated in the Battle of Badr and is counted among the Ansar Companions. (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 1, p. 373, Basbas Al-Juhanira, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) 

He is also known by the names Busaisa, Busais and Basbasa. (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 1, p. 379, Basbah bin Amrra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) 

Apart from the Battle of Badr, he also took part in the Battle of Uhud. (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 422, Basbas bin Amrra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990)

On the day of Badr, with regard to the departure from Medina, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra writes the following in Sirat Khatamun Nabiyyin

“Upon departing from Medina, the Holy Prophetsa appointed Abdullah bin Ummi Maktum as the Amir of Medina in his absence. However, when the Holy Prophetsa reached close to Rauha, which is situated at a distance of 36 miles from Medina, perhaps in the consideration that Abdullah was a blind man, and news of the imminent arrival of the army of the Quraish demanded that in his own absence the administration of Medina should remain strong, the Holy Prophetsa appointed Abu Lubabah bin Mundhir as the Amir of Medina and sent him back. It was ordered that Abdullah bin Ummi Maktum would only remain to be the Imamus-Salat, while Abu Lubabah would oversee matters of administration. Asim bin Adiyy was appointed as a separate Amir to oversee the additional population of Medina, i.e., Quba. It was from this very place that the Holy Prophetsa  sent two companions named Basbasra and Adiyyra towards Badr, in order to gather intelligence with respect to enemy movements; and instructed that they return swiftly with intelligence.” (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra, p. 354)

In the Friday Sermon two week ago, I mentioned the account of Hazrat Adiyy bin Abi Zaghbaara. I mentioned the incident in which Hazrat Basbasra and Hazrat Adiyy bin Zaghbaara were sent to a certain place.  When the two of them reached Badr to acquire intelligence, Hazrat Basbas bin Amrra and Hazrat Adiyy bin Zaghbaara sat their camels by a well, near a hill. They took out their leather water-bags, filled them up with the water from the well and had some to drink. Meanwhile, they overheard two women speaking to one another about the arrival of a caravan. (Sirat ibn Hisham, p. 617, Basbas Wa Adiyy Yatajassusan Al-Akhbar, Turath Al-Islam, Egpyt, 1955) There was also a man stood beside them. In the end, they returned to the Holy Prophetsa and informed him that they overheard the women discussing about a caravan due to arrive. The man who was stood there was Majdi. I have previously discussed this account in detail. The historian writes that the following morning Abu Sufyan reached the place where the caravan had arrived. He asked Majdi, “Did you see anyone who may have come here to gather intelligence?” He also asked, “If you hide the secrets of the enemy from us, then no one from the Quraish will ever make peace with you.” Majdi, i.e. the individual who stood there that day, replied, “By God, I did not see a single person here whom I do not know. No enemy of yours can be found between here and Yathrib. Even if there was someone, neither would he have been unable to hide from me, nor would I have hidden him from you.” He then said, “Although, I did see two riders stopping by here (pointing to where Hazrat Basbasra and Hazrat Adiyyra had sat their camels). They sat their camels there, drank some water and set off once again.” Abu Sufyan went to the area in which the two companions sat their camels and picked up the droppings of the camels to inspect them. He was suspicious, and therefore acted in this way. When he crushed the droppings, he found date-stones in the droppings of the camels. Abu Sufyan then said, “By God, this is the forage of the camels of Yathrib! They must have come from there and these were surely the spies of Muhammadsa and his people. (In other words, the two men had come from Medina as spies.) From these camel-droppings, I can now see why they came here.” He further said, “I feel as if they are still nearby”. Thereafter he moved on swiftly with his convoy. (Kitabul Maghazi Lil Waqidi, pp. 40-41, Alam Al-Kutub, Beirut, 1984) 

In that era, the Arabs not only had particular ways of gathering intelligence, they were also very skilled in deducing information [from their surroundings]. This has been mentioned under the section of the Battle of Badr in Sirat Khatamun Nabiyyin. Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra writes:

“When the Holy Prophetsa reached near Badr, motivated by some feeling, which narrations have not disclosed, the Holy Prophet seated Hazrat Abu Bakrra behind himself, and proceeded ahead of the Muslim army. At that time, the Holy Prophetsa encountered an old bedouin, from whom the Holy Prophetsa gathered during the course of conversation, that the army of the Quraish had reached very close to Badr. Upon hearing this news, the Holy Prophetsa returned and dispatched Hazrat ‘Alira, Zubair bin Al-Awwamra and Sa‘d b in Abi Waqasra and others to gather information. (According to another narration, Hazrat Basbasra was also among them – initially they were sent to gather information about the caravan but now since they had heard that an army was approaching near, they were sent once again to gather information regarding the army and Hazrat Basbasra was among them.) When these people arrived at the Valley of Badr, suddenly they noticed that a few Meccans were collecting water from a spring. These companions attacked this party, took captive an Abyssinian slave and brought him to the Holy Prophetsa. At the time, the Holy Prophetsa was engaged in Salat. When the companions noticed the Holy Prophetsa engaged in Salat, they began to interrogate the slave themselves, enquiring as to the whereabouts of Abu Sufyan’s caravan. Since this Abyssinian slave had come along with the army and was unaware of the caravan, he responded, ‘I am unaware of Abu Sufyan, but Abul-Hakam i.e., Abu Jahl, Utbah, Shaibah and Umayyah, etc., have encamped on the opposite side of the valley.’ The companionsra, who were more inclined to the caravan (as they only had knowledge of caravan approaching and this was the only thing on their minds), therefore thought that he was lying, and he desired to deliberately conceal the whereabouts of the caravan, upon which a few people began to beat and strike him. However, when they would strike him, due to fear, he would say, ‘Alright, I shall tell you.’ When they would release him, he would reiterate his initial response, ‘I am unaware of Abu Sufyan, but Abu Jahl, etc., are present nearby.’ When the Holy Prophetsa heard this during his Salat, he quickly finished his Salat and forbade the companions from beating him and said, ‘When he tells the truth, you beat him and when he lies, you release him.’ Then, the Holy Prophetsa gently enquired himself, ‘At this time, where is the army positioned?’ He responded, ‘On the opposite side of the hillock before you.’ The Holy Prophetsa enquired, ‘How many men are there in the army?’ He responded, ‘A multitude, but I am unaware of the exact figure.’ The Holy Prophetsa said, ‘Alright, then tell me how many camels are slaughtered daily for consumption?’ He responded, ‘Ten,’ (ten camels were slaughtered for them therefore apart from their other provisions for battle, they had also brought their provisions for food as well). The Holy Prophetsa turned to the companionsra and said, ‘It seems as if they are a force of 1,000 men if they are slaughtering 10 camels.’ This estimate actually turned out to be correct.” (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra, pp. 355-356)

The next companion I shall mention is Hazrat Tha‘labah bin Amr Ansarira. Hazrat Tha‘labahra belonged to the Banu Najjar tribe. His mother’s name was Kabsha who was the sister of the renowned poet, Hazrat Hassan bin Thabitra. Hazrat Tha‘labahra participated in the Battle of Badr and all other battles alongside the Holy Prophetsa. He is among those companions who destroyed the idols of Banu Salma. Hazrat Tha‘labah passed away during the Khilafat of Hazrat Umarra in the Battle of Jisr, i.e. the Battle of the Bridge. The Battle of Jisr took place in 14 AH against the Iranians. In Tabari it is recorded to have taken place in 13 AH. Both armies – the Muslims led by Hazrat Abu Ubaid and the Iranians led by Bhaman Jazawiyya – met at the Euphrates River. There was a Jisr, i.e. bridge built to cross the river. This is why it is known as the Battle of Jisr. Some are of the opinion that Hazrat Tha‘labahra passed away during the Khilafat of Hazrat Usmanra. (Al-Raud-ul-Anf, Vol. 3, pp. 158-159, Tasmiyatu Man Kisr Wa Alihati Bani Salama, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut) (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 386, Tha’labah bin Mihsanra, 340, Salamah bin Aslamra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) (Tarikh Al-Tabari, Vol. 2, p. 366, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) (Tarikh ibn Khaldun, Vol. 2, p. 522, Wilayatu Abi Ubaid, Darul Fikr, Beirut, 2000)

The next companion is Hazrat Tha‘labahra bin Ghanamah. According to one narration, Hazrat Tha‘labah’s name was Tha‘labah bin Anamah. Hazrat Tha‘labah’s mother’s name was Jaheerah bint Qain. He belonged to the Banu Salma tribe of the Ansar. Hazrat Tha‘labah is counted among those seventy companions who participated in the second Bai‘at Aqabah at the hand of the Holy Prophetsa. When Hazrat Tha‘labahra accepted Islam, he, along with Hazrat Mu‘az bin Jabalra and Abdullah bin Unaisra, broke the idols of Banu Salma, i.e. the idols belonging to his own tribe. Hazrat Tha‘labahra fought in the battles of Badr, Uhud and Khandaq [the Ditch]. During the Battle of Khandaq he was martyred by Hubairah bin Abi Wahab. According to another narration he was martyred in the Battle of Khaibar. (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 386, Tha‘labahra bin Mihsan, 340, Salamah bin Aslamra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) (Al-Isti‘aab Fi Ma’rifati Al-Sahaba, Vol. 1, p. 207, Tha‘labahra bin Anamah, Dar-ul-Jeel, Beirut, 1992) 

The next companion to be mentioned is Hazrat Jabir bin Khalidra. He belonged to the Ansar tribe of Banu Dinaar. Hazrat Jabir bin Khalidra participated in the Battle of Badr and Uhud. (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 394, Jabir bin Khalidra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990)

Next is a companion by the name of Hazrat Harithra bin Nu‘man bin Umayyah Ansari and he belonged to the Aus tribe of the Ansar. He participated in the battles of Badr and Uhud alongside the Holy Prophetsa. He was the paternal uncle of Hazrat Abdullah bin Jubairra and Hazrat Khawat bin Jubairra. He was present in the Battle of Siffin on the side of Hazrat Alira. (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 1, p. 641, Harith bin Nu’manra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) (Al-Isabatu Fi Tamyiz Al-Sahaba, Vol. 1, p. 694, Harith bin Nu’manra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1995)

Then there is a companion by the name of Hazrat Harris bin Anas Ansarira. His mother’s name was Hazrat Umme Shareekra and his father’s name was Anas bin Ra‘fi. His mother also had the honour of accepting Islam and entering into the Bai‘at [pledge of allegiance] of the Holy Prophetsa. Hazrat Harithra belonged to the Banu Abdi Ashal branch of the Aus tribe. He participated in the battles of Badr and Uhud and was martyred in the latter. During the Battle of Uhud, Hazrat Harithra was among those few companionsra who remained on the mount with Hazrat Abdullah bin Jubairra and as a result of this he was martyred. (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 334, Harith bin Nu‘manra, 362, Abdullah bin Jubairra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 8, p. 277, Umm-e-Shareekra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990)

Another companion is by the name of Hazrat Huraithra bin Zaid Ansari. According to a narration, his name is also recorded as Zaid bin Tha‘labah. He belonged to the Banu Zaid bin Harith branch of the Khazraj tribe. He participated in the Battle of Badr along with his brother, Hazrat Abdullahra – he was the one who was shown a vision regarding the Azan [Muslim call to prayer]. He also participated in the Battle of Uhud. (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 1, pp. 717-718, Huraith bin Zaidra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) His brother was also taught the words of the Azan in a dream.

The next companion to be mentioned is Hazrat Harithra bin Asimmah. He belonged to the Banu Najjar tribe of the Ansar and was martyred during Bir-e-Ma‘unah. (Al-Isti‘aab Fi Ma’rifati Al-Sahaba, Vol. 1, p. 292, Harith bin Asimmahra, Dar-ul-Jeel, Beirut, 1992) 

The Holy Prophetsa established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Harithra and Hazrat Suhaibra bin Sinan. (Al-Isabatu Fi Tamyiz Al-Sahaba, Vol. 1, p. 673, Harith bin Simmahra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1995) 

Hazrat Harithra bin Asimmah departed with the Holy Prophetsa on the day of Badr, however, when they reached Al Rauha, he did not have the strength to proceed further. Consequently, the Holy Prophetsa sent him back to Medina, yet, he was granted the same amount from the spoils of war as those who had participated in the Battle of Badr. Despite not physically participating in the Battle of Badr, he nevertheless had the desire to do so and left for Badr accordingly. However, his health did not permit him, or his illness worsened and therefore was sent home. Considering his intention and devotion, the Holy Prophetsa counted him among the companions who took part in the Battle of Badr. He was present during the Battle of Uhud and on the day when some of the people left their posts, Hazrat Harithra remained steadfast.

Hazrat Harithra had pledged to the Holy Prophetsa to sacrifice his life [for the sake of Islam]. Hazrat Harithra killed Usman bin Abdullah bin Mughira Makhzumi and took his armour which included his body armour, helmet and sword. The Holy Prophetsa later granted him these same items from the spoils of war. When the Holy Prophetsa learnt of Usman bin Abdullah’s death, he praised God Almighty for causing him to perish (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 386, Harith bin Simmahra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 1, p. 615, Harith bin Simmahra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003). This was because he was an extremely hostile and dangerous enemy of Islam. He was a mushrik [idolater] and came fully equipped with his weapons, in order to inflict harm upon the Holy Prophetsa. On the day of the Battle of Uhud, the Holy Prophetsa enquired as to what happened to his uncle, Hamzara. Hazrat Harithra went to search for him and after some time had elapsed, Hazrat Alira then went to enquire and when he came to Hazrat Harithra, he saw that Hazrat Hamzara had been martyred. Both of the companions returned and informed the Holy Prophetsa of his martyrdom. Hazrat Harithra relates: 

“On the day of the Battle of Uhud, while the Holy Prophetsa was in a narrow valley of a mountain, he asked me, ‘Have you seen Abdul Rahman bin Aufra?’ In reply to the Holy Prophetsa, I said, ‘I had seen him on the side of the mountain and the army of the idolaters was attacking him. I initially turned towards him in order to save him, but I then saw you and therefore came to you.’ The Holy Prophetsa said, ‘The angels are protecting him (i.e. Abdul Rahman bin Aufra).’” 

In another narration, it states that the Holy Prophetsa said that the angels were fighting along with him. Hazrat Harithra states, “Once the battle had finished, I went to Abdul Rahman bin Aufra and I saw that seven people had been killed and were lying dead in front of him. I asked him whether he had killed all of them and Abdul Rahman bin Aufra replied that he had killed three of them but did not have knowledge of who killed the others. Upon this I said that indeed how true was the word of God and His Messengersa, in that the angels were aiding him.” (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 1, p. 615, Harith bin Simmahra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) 

Hazrat Harithra was part of the delegation that went to Bir-e-Ma‘unah. At the time of when the incident of Bir-e-Ma‘unah took place and the companionsra were martyred, Hazrat Harithra and Amr bin Umayyahra had gone to graze the camels. According to Sirat ibn Hisham, these two companions were Amr bin Umayyah and Hazrat Munzir bin Muhammad, however in other narrations, it was Hazrat Harithra and Amr bin Umayyahra who went to graze the camels. Nonetheless, according to the narration which specifies these two names, when they returned to their camp, they saw that the birds had congregated there and from this they understood that their companions had been martyred. 

Hazrat Harithra enquired from Hazrat Amrra as to what they should do. Amrra replied, “I think we should go back and inform the Holy Prophetsa.” However, Hazrat Harithra said, “I will not turn away from the place where Munzirra was martyred.” And so, he went ahead and was martyred whilst fighting against them. (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 1, p. 615, Harith bin Al-Simmahra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) (Sirat ibn Hisham, p. 439, Hadith Bi’r Ma’unah, Dar ibn Hazm, Beirut, 2009)

Hazrat Abdullah bin Abi Bakrra relates that Hazrat Harithra was martyred as a result of the continuous spears that were thrown at him by the enemy which had penetrated his body. (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 1, p. 615, Harith bin Al-Simmahra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003)

May God Almighty continue to elevate the rank of the Companionsra who took part in the Battle of Badr.   

(Translated by The Review of Religions)

(Original Urdu sermon published in Al Fazl International, 22 February-7 March 2019, pp. 5-9)

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