Answers to Everyday Issues – Part 71: Prophethood of Prophet Jesus and Prophet David


Click here for Part 70

Guidance regarding basic Islamic issues – which Hazrat Amirul Momineen, Khalifatul Masih Vaa has given on various occasions in his written correspondence and during MTA programmes – is being officially published below for everyone’s benefit.

Is it permissible for Muslims to keep dogs inside their homes?

chris curry jx Bmk8KiEY unsplash
Chris Curry| Unsplash

A lady from the UK enquired of Hazrat Amirul Momineen, Khalifatul Masih Vaa, “A non-Ahmadi friend of mine posits that we cannot keep dogs within our homes because angels do not favour them. My question is, as Muslims, is it permissible for us to keep dogs inside our residences?”

Huzoor-e-Anwaraa, in his letter dated 6 December 2022, provided the following answer to this question:

“Certain ahadith indicate that angels abstain from entering a home in which there is a dog present. Hence, the Holy Prophet Muhammadsa said:

لَا تَدْخُلُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ بَيْتًا فِيهِ كَلْبٌ وَلَا صُورَةُ تَمَاثِيلَ

“‘Angels do not enter a house that contains a dog or images.’ (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab bad’i l-khalq, Bab dhikri l-mala’ikah)

“Contrastingly, other ahadith detail that dogs may be kept for three specific purposes: for the protection of livestock, for overseeing farmland, and for hunting. (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-muzara‘ah, Bab iqtina‘i l-kalbi li l-harth)

“Furthermore, the Holy Quran clarifies that game hunted by trained animals is permissible to eat. (Surah al-Ma’idah, Ch.5: V.5) Additionally, it is mentioned in Hadith that game caught by a hunting dog is considered lawful [halal] meat if the name of Allah is invoked at the time of the hunt. Hazrat Adira bin Hatim narrates, ‘I enquired from the Holy Prophetsa regarding hunting with dogs, to which he responded, ‘Should you dispatch your trained dog for the hunt while invoking Allah’s name, and the dog does not consume any part of the catch, the prey it secures for you is permissible for consumption. This holds true even if the dog has killed the game.’’ (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-dhaba’ih wa as-sayd, Bab idha akala l-kalb)

“Therefore, in my perspective, these directives infer that keeping dogs without a valid reason is forbidden. Nevertheless, if one retains a dog for a legitimate necessity, there is no objection; albeit, under such circumstances, dogs ought not to be housed indoors; rather, they should be accommodated outside in a designated area.

“The hadith regarding angels not entering a home where there is a dog could also be interpreted to mean that in homes inhabited by individuals of impure disposition and sullied characteristics, who are deeply engrossed in materialistic desires – exhibiting behaviour comparable to untrained dogs, incessantly salivating and aggressively reacting to all who pass by – such places are bereft of Divine blessings and favour. The Holy Quran similarly uses the analogy of a dog for such individuals, ensnared by worldly desires and personal lust, neglecting spiritual growth. The Almighty delineates their condition as akin to that of a dog, which, upon the raising of a stick, extends its tongue and remains in the same state even when unprovoked. (Surah al-A‘raf, Ch.7: V.177)

“Some hold the belief that dogs are prohibited because they are deemed unclean animals, their contact purportedly rendering items or clothing impure. This notion, however, is unfounded. Imam Bukhari has assembled various narrations about dogs in the same place in his Sahih al-Bukhari. They include for example, narrations concerning a dog’s mouth contact with a utensil necessitating its washing seven times, a person quenching the thirst of a dog suffering from extreme thirst and being granted paradise by Allah, dogs entering the mosque’s courtyard and urinating during the Holy Prophet’ssa blessed era without the Companions washing it off, and the legitimacy of consuming prey caught by a trained hunting dog, etc. By consolidating these narrations, he conveyed that dogs, per se, are not inherently repulsive without cause; they are merely animals like any other. Nevertheless, since a dog’s saliva can harbour bacteria potentially very harmful to human health, it becomes imperative to thoroughly clean any utensil a dog has licked before using it for human purposes. Nonetheless, mere contact by a dog with a person’s possessions does not render them impure, and the use of trained dogs for specific purposes is sanctioned by both the Holy Quran and Hadith. (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-wudu’, Bab al-ma’i lladhi yughsalu bihi sha‘aru l-insan)

“Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IVrh provided an interpretation of this hadith as well. Responding to a query, he remarked:

“‘It is not accurate. Personally, I am aware that angels do visit places where there are both dogs and images. Pictures hung in the home of the Promised Messiahas, and a dog wandered there, yet the angels were not deterred. The mention of a dog here implies a condition where the heart is likened to that of a dog, prone to senseless barking. In places where hearts resemble barking dogs, angels choose not to enter. Moreover, another interpretation might pertain to the fact that, unlike in the West, where dogs are well-trained and do not attack unprovoked, in our region, dogs are not trained and might attack savagely if approached by mistake. Righteous individuals, akin to angels, would naturally abstain from visiting such homes.’ (Daily Al-Fazl, 24 March 2000, p. 4; Video recording, dated 24 October 1999)

“On another occasion, Huzoorrh elucidated:

“‘It simply signifies that if dogs are bite-prone and not thoroughly trained, any unfortunate, decent individual visiting would be subjected to their barking. ‘Angels’ here symbolise righteous individuals; such individuals too refrain from visiting homes where dogs exhibit poor behaviour.’ (Daily Al-Fazl, 17 June 2000, p. 4; Video recording dated 10 November 1999)

“Hence, it is permissible to keep dogs for legitimate reasons, provided they are raised with discipline. Dogs that are trained and disciplined demonstrate remarkable intelligence and loyalty, diligently protecting their owners. They understand their owners’ commands clearly and express their concerns directly to them.”

the holy quran 3006944 1 scaled
hmzasefaa| Pixabay

Were Prophet Jesusas and Prophet Davidas legislative prophets?

A lady from Pakistan wrote to Hazrat Amirul Momineen, Khalifatul Masih Vaa, stating, “Revealed books were sent down to both Prophet Jesusas and Prophet Davidas, yet why are they not considered legislative prophets, whereas Prophet Adamas, upon whom no book was revealed, is called a legislative prophet? I request guidance on this matter.”

Huzoor-e-Anwaraa, in his letter dated 6 December 2022, provided the following answer to this question:

“Allah Almighty sent a multitude of prophets for the guidance of mankind, communicated with them, provided them with directives for guiding others, and granted scriptures to some. However, the sharia was revealed by Allah Almighty only when humanity was deemed capable of shouldering its mandates. Subsequently, when humanity was ready to undertake the responsibilities of the final sharia, Allah Almighty graced the pure heart of His Beloved and our Master, the most noble Prophet Muhammadsa, who achieved the pinnacle of human perfection, with the descent of His last and eternal sharia, the Holy Quran. Prior sharias, revealed across different epochs, were tailored to the contemporary conditions and capacities of their respective peoples and were intended for specific durations. Thus, Prophet Adamas, was endowed with a sharia suited to the era’s circumstances and the then-human capabilities. Subsequent to him, Prophet Noahas received a sharia reflective of his time’s scenarios and states, and in his footsteps, the patriarch of prophets, Prophet Abrahamas, was also sent. All Prophets sent up to Prophet Mosesas adhered to this sharia. When Mosesas was chosen by Allah the Exalted for the guidance of people, He bestowed upon him the Mosaic sharia. Prophets like Davidas and Solomonas who were also the sovereigns of their age, followed this Mosaic sharia. This sharia perpetuated until Jesusas, the last Prophet of the Mosaic sharia. Thereafter, Allah the Exalted revealed His ultimate sharia through the Holy Quran and made the following promise:

اِنَّا نَحۡنُ نَزَّلۡنَا الذِّکۡرَ وَاِنَّا لَہٗ لَحٰفِظُوۡنَ

“‘Surely, We Ourself have sent down this Exhortation [i.e., Quran], and We will, most surely, safeguard it.’ (Surah al-Hijr, Ch.15: V.10)

“Therefore, the sharia revealed in the form of the Holy Quran is the ultimate legislation, offering guidance and directives for humanity until the end of time. However, the sharias bestowed upon Adamas, Noahas, and Mosesas were intended for specific epochs. Subsequent Prophets, as decreed by Allah Almighty, adhered to the preceding sharia until the advent of a new legislation. Davidas and Jesusas were sent to affirm and revitalise the Mosaic sharia, without being granted distinct legislations of their own.

“Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra, expounding upon verse 88 of Surah al-Baqarah, elucidates:

“‘The term ‘قَفَّيْنَا’ translates to ‘We caused [them] to follow.’ This not only denotes the advent of numerous Prophets following Mosesas but also illustrates that they were not bearers of new laws. Rather, they were followers of Mosesas and trod upon his delineated path […]. It is a common misconception among exegetes that each Messenger introduced a new sharia. However, herein Allah the Exalted expressly delineates that all Prophets succeeding Mosesas until the arrival of the Holy Prophet Muhammadsa were adherents of the Mosaic sharia.’ (Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 2, p. 20)

“The Promised Messiahas, who is the Hakam ‘Adl of this age, states:

“‘The Masih [Messiah] was the follower and servant of the faith of a perfect and high-standing Prophet, i.e. Musa [Moses] and his Gospel is a branch of the Torah.’ (Barahin-e-Ahmadiyya Part IV, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 1, p. 594)

In his book Shahadat-ul-Quran, he states:

“‘Allah, the Lord of Glory, Himself affirms it in the Holy Quran:

وَلَقَدۡ اٰتَيۡنَا مُوۡسَي الۡکِتٰبَ وَقَفَّيۡنَا مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہٖ بِالرُّسُلِ

“‘Meaning that, We bestowed the Torah upon Moses and after that Book, We sent many Messengers in its support and to testify to its truth. (Surah al-Baqarah, Ch.2: V.88)

“‘Similarly, Allah says in another place:

 ثُمَّ اَرۡسَلۡنَا رُسُلَنَا تَتۡرَا

“‘Meaning that, then, We sent Our Messengers one after the other. (Surah al-Mu’minun, Ch.23: V.45)

“‘All these verses show that it is the way of Allah that after sending down His Book, He definitely sends Prophets in support of it. Accordingly, in support of the Torah, sometimes as many as 400 Prophets were sent at one and the same time, to which the Bible testifies to this day.’ (Shahadat-ul-Quran, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 6, pp. 340-341)

“Christians concur that Jesus Christ, peace be upon him, did not introduce any new sharia. The Promised Messiahas, in his treatise Khutbah-e-Ilhamiyyah, corroborated this point by quoting G. A. Lefroy, the then Bishop of Lahore:

“‘The lord Jesus Christ was certainly not a lawgiver, in the sense in which Moses was, giving a complete descriptive law about such things as clean and unclean food, etc. That he did not do this must be evident to anyone who reads the New Testament with any care or thought whatever.’ (Khutbah-e-Ilhamiyyah, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 16, pp. 12-14)

“Moreover, it is unequivocally clear that the Prophets sent across different eras were endowed with varying degrees of ranks and virtues. Hazrat Musleh Maudra, in his interpretation of verse 254 of Surah al-Baqarah, which reads, تِلۡکَ الرُّسُلُ فَضَّلۡنَا بَعۡضَہُمۡ عَلٰي بَعۡضٍ مِنۡہُمۡ مَّنۡ کَلَّمَ اللّٰہُ وَرَفَعَ بَعۡضَہُمۡ دَرَجٰت [‘Of these Messengers some have We exalted above others; among them there are those to whom Allah spoke and revealed to them a Law; and some of them He only exalted in rank.’], elucidates this concept by stating:

“‘[Allah states that,] these Messengers previously mentioned were such that We elevated some above others, meaning some held a more exalted status in the sight of Allah Almighty compared to others. This clarification comes in light of a potential query arising from the discourse on earlier prophets, who were each sent to specific nations and contended chiefly with their own people, not facing a universal opposition. However, the Holy Prophet Muhammadsa is proclaimed to have been sent as a harbinger of glad tidings and a warner for all of humanity. How, then, could he triumph against global opposition?

“‘Allah Almighty elucidates that disparities in rank and stature existed among those former Messengers. It wasn’t so that all were of a singular rank. Indeed, there are myriad levels of perfection and distinctions in the degrees of excellence among the Prophets themselves. Hence, being among them does not imply equivalence in rank or absence of distinction. For example, Davidas, mentioned here, was not only a Prophet but also a sovereign, bestowing upon him an apparent superiority over certain other Prophets. Similarly, an exceptional distinction has been conferred upon the Holy Prophet Muhammadsa. Yet, David’sas pre-eminence extended only over a few Prophets, whereas the Holy Prophet Muhammad’ssa distinction spans over all Prophets. He even stated that had Moses and Jesus, peace be upon them, been alive during his era, they too would have adhered to his command. [Al-Yawaqit wal-Jawahir fi bayan ‘aqa’id al-akabir, p. 174, by Allama Abdul Wahab Shi’rani]

“‘Regarding ‘مِنْھُمْ مَنْ کَلَّمَ اللّٰہ,’ some individuals interpret it to mean having a direct conversation with Allah, i.e., speaking in such a manner that there is no intermediary like Angel Gabriel involved. However, in my opinion, ‘مِنْھُمْ مَنْ کَلَّمَ اللّٰہ’ refers to the law-bearing Prophets, and ‘رَفَعَ بَعۡضَہُمۡ دَرَجٰت’ refers to the non-law-bearing Prophets. This is because communication [kalam] occurs with every Messenger. How could one be a Prophet without it? And each has a high rank. However, when a comparison is made, it implies that some were given a sharia, while others were merely bestowed the rank of Prophethood, like Prophet Jesusas, who was not given a sharia but merely Prophethood. This is also supported by the Holy Quran, where Allah the Exalted states regarding Prophet Mosesas, ‘وَکَلَّمَ اللّٰہُ مُوۡسٰي تَکۡلِيۡمًا’, i.e., ‘And Allah spoke to Moses at length.’. (Surah an-Nisa, Ch.4: V.165)

“‘The proof that ‘کَلَّمَ اللّٰہ’ means being granted a sharia is also found in a hadith. Imam Ahmadrh narrates from Hazrat Abu Dharra that, ‘The Holy Prophetsa said, ‘Adam was the first Prophet.’ I asked, ‘Was he a Prophet?’ The Prophetsa replied, ‘Yes, he was a mukallam Prophet.’’ (Tafsir Fath al-Bayan, Vol. 1, p. 333). This indicates that not all Prophets were mukallam. And since Allah communicated with all Prophets, here, communication or being mukallam refers to communicating a sharia. And ‘رَفَعَ بَعۡضَہُمۡ دَرَجٰت’ means some were not given any sharia; they were merely elevated to the noble station of Prophethood, as has been stated elsewhere that, ‘وَلَقَدۡ اٰتَيۡنَا مُوۡسَي الۡکِتٰبَ وَقَفَّيۡنَا مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہٖ بِالرُّسُل’ i.e., ‘Indeed We gave Moses the Book and caused a number of Messengers to follow after him [to spread its teachings].’  (Surah al-Baqarah, Ch.2: V.88) All of these Messengers were non-law-bearing and adhered to the Mosaic sharia.

“‘Then [Allah] states, ‘وَاٰتَيۡنَا عِيۡسَي ابۡنَ مَرۡيَمَ الۡبَيِّنٰتِ وَاَيَّدۡنٰہُ بِرُوۡحِ الۡقُدُس,’ i.e., ‘And to Jesus son of Mary, We gave manifest Signs and strengthened him with the Spirit of holiness.’ [Ibid.] It is crucial to note that since the Israelites are addressed in this Surah, some characteristics of Jesusas are immediately mentioned, merely to establish an argument against his adversaries. This does not intend to signify any exclusive privilege of his, contrary to what Christians have perceived.

“‘‘وَاَيَّدۡنٰہُ بِرُوۡحِ الۡقُدُس,’ i.e., ‘And We strengthened him with the Spirit of holiness’ [Ibid.], hints at the fact that Jesusas did not introduce a new sharia; rather, he prominently presented certain teachings of the Torah before the people and was supported by Allah, through the holy spirit. Despite the Mosaic law being complete in Moses’as era, over time, people’s focus shifted from its essence to merely its shell. Thus, Jesusas was sent to ensure adherence to the Torah’s commandments, as he himself declared, ‘Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.’ (Matthew 5:17, KJV) Furthermore, it was crucial to reform those who had clung solely to its outer shell.’ (Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 2, pp. 572-574)

“In essence, Jesus and David, peace be upon them both, were not bestowed with any legislative scripture by Allah. Instead, they were Prophets adhering to the sharia of Moses, peace be upon him. The revelations they received from Allah were actually extensions of the Mosaic Law and not a new sharia. Conversely, Adam, peace be upon him, was a legislating Prophet, but the sharia revealed to him was also tailored to the capacities and circumstances of the people of his time and was intended for a particular era.”

(Compiled by Zaheer Ahmad Khan, Head of Records Department, Private Secretariat, London and translated by Al Hakam.)

No posts to display


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here