11 February 2022
Men of Excellence: Hazrat Abu Bakrra
After reciting the tashahhud, ta‘awuz and Surah al-Fatihah, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih Vaa said:
In historical accounts, we find a dream of Hazrat Abu Bakrra mentioned in relation to the Conquest of Mecca. It is mentioned that Hazrat Abu Bakrra related his dream to the Holy Prophetsa and said, “O Messengersa of Allah! I saw a dream in which I saw you; we had reached close to Makkah. A female dog came towards us barking and when we went near to her, she lay down on her back and milk started to flow from her.” Upon this, the Holy Prophetsa said, “Their harm has been removed and we will soon derive benefit. They will call on their relationship to you and seek refuge with you and you will soon meet some of them.” This is how the Holy Prophetsa interpreted the dream. The Holy Prophetsa said, “Hence, if you find Abu Sufyan, do not kill him!” Following this, the Muslims found Abu Sufyan and Hakim bin Hizam at Marr Al-Zahran. (Imam Al-Baihaqi, Dala’il al-Nubuwwah, Vol. 5 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1988], p. 48)
Ibn Uqbah relates, “When Abu Sufyan and Hakim bin Hizam were returning [to Mecca], Hazrat Abbasra said to the Holy Prophetsa, ‘O Messengersa of Allah! I am doubtful in relation to Abu Sufyan’s acceptance of Islam. (The manner in which Abu Sufyan agreed to obey the Holy Prophetsa and how he accepted Islam has previously been mentioned. Nevertheless, Hazrat Abbasra said) You should call him back until he has understood the teachings of Islam and seen Allah’s army with you.’”
In another narration, Ibn Abi Shaybah relates, “When Abu Sufyan was about to return, Hazrat Abu Bakrra said to the Holy Prophetsa, ‘O Messengersa of Allah! If you command us then we will stop Abu Sufyan on route.’”
In yet another narration, Ibn Ishaq relates, “When Abu Sufyan was returning, the Holy Prophetsa said to Hazrat Abbasra, ‘Stop him (that is, Abu Sufyan) in the valley.’ Hence, Hazrat Abbasra caught up with him and stopped him. Upon this, Abu Sufyan said, ‘O Bani Hashim! Are you deceiving me?’ Hazrat Abbasra replied, ‘The people of the Prophet do not deceive!’”
According to another narration, he replied, “We do not deceive. However, you should wait here until the morning and until you see the army of Allah and what Allah has prepared for the disbelievers.” Hence, Hazrat Abbasra kept Abu Sufyan in this valley until the next morning. (Mustafa ‘Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-‘Ibad, Vol. 5, Fi Ghazwat al-Fath al-A’zam [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1993], p. 218)
With regards to when the Muslim army was passing in front of Abu Sufyan, it is written in “Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad” that the contingent of the Holy Prophetsa, dressed in green, passed in front of Abu Sufyan. This consisted of Muhajirin and Ansar and there were many banners and flags. Every tribe of the Ansar had its banner and flag and they were clad in iron, that is, they were clad in armour and chain-mail. Only their eyes could be seen. Every so often Hazrat Umarra would say at the top of his voice, “March slowly so that your first division [of the army] remain connected with the last division.” It is said that this contingent contained 1,000 soldiers clad in armour. The Holy Prophetsa passed his banner to Hazrat Sa‘d bin Ubadahra and he stayed at the forefront of the army. When Hazrat Sa‘dra reached Abu Sufyan, he called out to him saying, “Today is a day of bloodshed. Today that which is prohibited shall be made permissible. Today the Quraish shall be humiliated.” Thereupon Abu Sufyan said to Abbasra, “O Abbas, it is your duty to protect me today.”
Thereafter, the other tribes passed by and the Holy Prophetsa then appeared, mounted on his camel named “Qaswah”. He came whilst speaking to Hazrat Abu Bakrra and Hazrat Usaid bin Hudairra who were to each side of him. Hazrat Abbasra said to Abu Sufyan that this was the Holy Prophetsa. (Mustafa ‘Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-‘Ibad, Vol. 5 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1993], pp. 220-221)
Hazrat Abdullah bin Umarra relates that when the Holy Prophetsa entered Mecca during the Conquest of Mecca, he saw the women were hitting their scarves upon the faces of the horses in order to push them back. The Holy Prophetsa smiled and turned to Hazrat Abu Bakrra asking, “O Abu Bakr, what is it that Hassan bin Thabit said?” Hazrat Abu Bakrra recited the following couplets:
عَدِمتُ بُنَيَّتِي إنْ لَمْ تَرَوْهَا
تُثِيْرُ النَّقْعَ مَوْعِدُهَا كَدَاءُ
يُنَازِعْنَ الأَعِنَّةَ مُسْرِحَاتٍ
يُلَطِّمُهُنَّ بِالْخُمُرِ النِّسَاءُ
“I would lose my beloved daughter if you see not; An army which scatters dust all over, the promised place of which is Mount Kada’;
“They hold the reins of their swift horses; The women strike them with their scarves.”
Upon this, the Holy Prophetsa said, “Enter this city from the place Hassan mentioned, i.e. Kada’.” (Mustafa ‘Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-‘Ibad, Vol. 5 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1993], p. 227), (Sharh al-Zurqani ‘ala al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, Vol. 3, [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1996], p. 415)
Kada’ is another name for Arafat. It is an elevated path that descends from the outer parts of Mecca to its inner area. This is from where the Holy Prophetsa entered Mecca during the Conquest of Mecca. (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 242)
When the Holy Prophetsa announced the message of peace during the Conquest of Mecca, Hazrat Abu Bakrra said to him, “O Messengersa of Allah, Abu Sufyan desires honour.” The Holy Prophetsa therefore stated, “Whoever enters the house of Abu Sufyan shall be granted security.” (Sharh al-Zurqani ‘ala al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, Vol. 3, Ghazwat al-Fath al-A’zam [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1996], p. 421)
After conquering Mecca, the Holy Prophetsa gave an order regarding the idol Hubal; it was taken down and the Holy Prophetsa was standing beside it. Hazrat Zubair bin al-Awwamra then said to Abu Sufyan, “O Abu Sufyan, Hubal has been overthrown, yet on the day of the Battle of Uhud, you very arrogantly proclaimed that it had rewarded you all.” In response, Abu Sufyan said, “O son of Awwam, leave such talk, for I have realised that if there were any god beside the God of Muhammadsa, then what has happened today would never have come to pass.”
The Holy Prophetsa then sat in one corner of the Kabah, and the people gathered around him. Hazrat Abu Hurairahra relates that the Holy Prophetsa was sat during the Conquest of Mecca and Hazrat Abu Bakrra was beside him with his sword unsheathed on guard, i.e. he was stood right next to him. (Mustafa ‘Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-‘Ibad, Vol. 5, Ghazwat al-Fath al-A’zam [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1993], p. 235)
With regards to the Battle of Hunayn it is mentioned that another name for this battle was Ghazwah Hawazin as well as the Ghazwah Autas. Hunayn is a valley situated between Mecca and Ta‘if at a distance of 30 miles from Mecca. The Battle of Hunayn took place after the Conquest of Mecca in Shawal, 8 AH. It is mentioned in narrations that when Allah the Almighty enabled the Holy Prophetsa to conquer Mecca, the chiefs of Hawazin and Thaqif gathered together and were fearful that the Holy Prophetsa would attack them as well. (‘Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 3, Bab Dhikr Maghaziyah Ghazwat Hunain [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2002], p. 151), (Atlas Sirat Nabawisa, p. 409, Dar al-Salam, Riyad, 1424 AH)
Malik bin Auf Nasri gathered the tribes of Arabia; hence, along with the tribes of Hawazin and Banu Thaqif, the Banu Nasr, Banu Jusham, Sa‘d bin Bakr and a few people from the Banu Hilal joined with them. (Ibn Hisham, Sirat Ibn Hisham [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-’Ilmiyyah, 2001], p. 761)
All of them gathered together at a place called Autas. Autas was the name of a valley near Hunayn.
Malik bin Auf sent his spies to gather information about the Holy Prophetsa. When the Holy Prophetsa learnt that they had formed an alliance, the Holy Prophetsa sent Abdullah bin Abi Hadrad Al-Aslami on a reconnaissance mission towards them. After this, the Holy Prophetsa decided to march towards Hawazin and for the battle he took weapons on loan from his cousin, Naufal bin Harith, and also from Safwan bin Umayyah. Thus, the Holy Prophetsa marched upon the Banu Hawazin with an army of 12,000 men. They reached the valley of Hunayn early morning and entered the valley. The army of the idolaters was already hiding in the valley. They attacked the Muslims all of a sudden and fired arrows with such intensity that the Muslims turned back and scattered as they ran away. Owing to this, only a handful of companions were left around the Holy Prophetsa, among whom was Hazrat Abu Bakrra. (‘Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 3, Bab Dhikr Maghaziyah Ghazwat Hunain [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2002], pp. 151-154), (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 49)
Abu Ishaq narrates, “A person came to Bara and said, ‘You all ran away in the Battle of Hunayn,’ He said, ‘I can testify that the Holy Prophetsa did not retreat. However, some impatient ones and those without weapons went towards the tribe of Hawazin; they were expert archers, they released a flurry of arrows, like a swarm of locusts, owing to this they broke rank.’” (Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Jihad wa al-Siyar, Bab fi Ghazwat Hunain, Hadith 4616)
In this situation, Hazrat Abu Bakrra and Hazrat Umarra from among the Muhajirin remained steadfast with the Holy Prophetsa; and from among the family of the Holy Prophetsa, Hazrat Alira and Hazrat Abbas bin Abdil Muttalibra remained with the Holy Prophetsa; similarly, the names of Abu Sufyan bin Harith and his son Rabi‘ah bin Harith, Fadl bin Abbas and Usamah bin Zaid are mentioned as well (Ibn Hisham, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Ghazwat Hunain/Thubat al-Rasulsa wa ba’d Ashabih [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2001], p. 764)
Hazrat Abu Qatadahra narrates, “During the Battle of Hunayn, I saw a Muslim fighting against an idolater. I saw another idolater who was discreetly moving towards the Muslim from behind, in order to kill him. I quickly advanced towards the idolater that was moving discreetly towards the Muslim. He raised his hand to strike me, but I struck his hand and severed it. He then grabbed hold of me firmly and squeezed so hard that I was left immobilised. He then released me and loosened his grip, I pushed him away and then killed him. On the other side, the Muslims suffered defeat and ran away, and I was also among them.”
He then further narrates,
“The Muslims then returned and gathered around the Holy Prophetsa. The Holy Prophetsa said, ‘Whoever can provide evidence that he slayed someone [from among the enemy], then he will be entitled to the spoils belonging to that deceased person.’ I stood up so that I could find some evidence about the person I killed, but nobody saw him nor could anyone testify for me, and so I sat back down. I then thought about it again and mentioned the incident about the person I killed to the Holy Prophetsa; there was a person sitting near the Holy Prophetsa who said, ‘I have the weapons of the person that was killed by him.’ The person who took the weapons said to the Holy Prophetsa to give something else to me that I would be content with. (i.e. the person who had taken the weapon said to leave the weapons with him and to give Hazrat Abu Qatadahra something else). Hazrat Abu Bakrra was sitting there; he said, ‘This cannot happen at any cost, the Holy Prophetsa would not grant something to a coward from among the Quraish and forsake a lion from among the Lions of God, who fought alongside the Messengersa of Allah.’”
Hazrat Abu Qatadahra would say, “The Holy Prophetsa stood up and gave me the weapons. With that I then bought a date orchard, and this was my first property that I invested in after accepting Islam.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Maghazi, Bab Qaul Allah Ta‘ala wa Yaum Hunain, Hadith 4322)
Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra says,
“Ponder over an incident in history wherein the Battle of Hunayn, the disbelievers of Mecca joined the Muslim army saying that ‘Today, we will demonstrate the feats of our bravery’, but they were unable to withstand the onslaught from the Banu Thaqif and ran away from the battlefield. Hence, there came a time during this battle when only 12 companions remained around the Holy Prophetsa. The Muslim army, which was a force of 10,000 men, became scattered. The army of the disbelievers, which comprised of 3,000 archers, were hiding on both sides of the valley and they began firing their arrows on them. Yet, despite this, the Holy Prophetsa did not wish to retreat and wanted to continue on. Hazrat Abu Bakrra became worried and grabbed the reins of the Holy Prophet’ssa mount, and said, ‘O Messengersa of Allahsa! May my mother and father be sacrificed for your sake! This is not the time to advance ahead. The Muslim army will re-group, and we can attack then.’ However, the Holy Prophetsa said with great passion, ‘Leave the reins of my mount,’ and then he nudged it with his heel and advanced ahead, reciting the following couplet:
أنَا النَّبِيُّ لَا كَذِب
أنَا ابْنُ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِب
Meaning: ‘I am the promised prophet, whose eternal safety was vouchsafed, I am not a liar, therefore, I care not, whether you are an army of 3,000 or 30,000; O ye idolaters! Seeing this bravery of mine, do not think that I am God, I am a human and the son of your chief, Abdul Muttalib’ (i.e. his grandson). The Holy Prophet’ssa uncle, Hazrat Abbasra had a loud voice, the Holy Prophetsa said to him, ‘Abbas! Come forward, and with a loud voice proclaim, “O companions of Surah al-Baqarah (i.e. those who had memorised Surah al-Baqarah), O companions who pledged allegiance under the tree at Hudaibiyah! The Messengersa of God summons you.”’
One of the companions narrates, ‘Owing to the cowardice of the new Muslim converts from Mecca, when the vanguard of the Muslim army retreated, our mounts also ran and the more we tried to steer them back, the more they would run in the opposite direction. Until the voice of Abbasra resounded inside the valley, “O companions of Surah al-Baqarah! O companions who pledged allegiance under the tree at Hudaibiyah! The Messengersa of God summons you!”’
The companion further says, ‘When this voice reached my ears, it seemed as though I was no longer alive, but had died and that the trumpet of angel Israfil was resounding in the air. I pulled hard on the reins of my camel, its head touched its back, but it was so frightened that as soon as I would loosen the reins, it would run in the opposite direction again. Many of my comrades, including myself took out their swords, some managed to jump off the camels, and many had to severe the heads of their camels.’ The companions then began running towards the Holy Prophetsa, and within a few moments, the army of 10,000 companions, which was running helplessly towards Mecca, gathered around the Holy Prophetsa again. A short while later, this army climbed the mount and destroyed the enemies, and this dangerous defeat turned into a great victory.” (Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 6, pp. 409-410)
With regards to Ghazwah Ta‘if, it is written that Ta‘if was a famous town situated 90 km to the west of Mecca and is a mountainous town of Hijaz. Grapes and other fruits were available here in abundance and it was home to the Banu Thaqif. (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 178)
The remaining army of the Banu Thaqif and Hawazin ran away to Ta‘if along with their leader Malik bin Auf al-Nasri and sought refuge in their fort. Thus, after finishing from Hunayn, and having gathered the spoils at Ji‘ranah and distributing it, the Holy Prophetsa headed towards Ji‘ranah in the same month of Shawal 8 AH. (Al-Rahiq al-Makhtum, p. 567, al-Maktabah al-Salafiyyah, Lahore)
Ji‘ranah was the name of a well near Mecca on route to Ta‘if. It was situated 27 km from Mecca. (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 88)
There are various narrations regarding how many days the Holy Prophetsa besieged Ta‘if; according to some narrations the siege lasted for a little over 10 nights, whereas some narrations state that the siege lasted a little over 20 nights. According to one narration, the Holy Prophetsa besieged Ta‘if for more than 30 nights. (Mustafa ‘Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-‘Ibad, Vol. 5, Dhikr Ghazwat Ta’if [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1993], p. 388)
Ibn Hisham states, “It is said that the Holy Prophetsa besieged Ta‘if for 17 nights. (Ibn Hisham, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Dhikr al-Ta’if ba’d Hunain [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2001], p. 792)
Hazrat Anasra bin Malik states in a narration of Sahih Muslim, “We laid siege to Ta‘if for 40 nights.” (Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Zakah, Bab I‘ta al-Muallafat Qulubihim ‘ala al-Islam, Hadith 2442)
During the siege of the Banu Thaqif in Ta‘if, the Holy Prophetsa said to Hazrat Abu Bakrra, “O Abu Bakr! I have seen in a dream that I was presented a bowl of butter, however, a cockerel pecked at the bowl as a result of which all the contents of the bowl fell down.” Hazrat Abu Bakrra submitted, “O Messengersa of Allah! I do not believe that you will achieve the outcome regarding them today.” The Holy Prophetsa said, “I too do not see it happening.” After a short while, Hazrat Umarra said, “Should I make an announcement to depart?” To which the Holy Prophetsa said, “Yes, indeed.” And so Hazrat Umarra made the announcement that they were to leave. (Ibn Hisham, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Dhikr al-Ta’if ba’d Hunain [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Sadir, 1977], p. 793)
The Battle of Tabuk took place in Rajab, 9 AH. In regards to this battle, it is recorded that the place of Tabuk is located along the main route to Syria from Madinah, commonly used by travelling merchant convoys. It is a city between the Valley of Qura and Syria, and the companions would also refer to it as the city of the “Dwellers of the Wood”. This was the place to which Hazrat Shu‘aibas was sent as a prophet. (Yaqut Ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Hamawi, Mu’jam al-Buldan, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Ihya al-Turath al-’Arabi], p. 14)
Hazrat Abu Bakrra accompanied the Holy Prophetsa during the Battle of Tabuk and during this expedition, the Holy Prophetsa gave a large flag to Hazrat Abu Bakrra. (Ibn Sa’d, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3, Abu Bakr al-Siddiqra… [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2017], p. 131)
During the Battle of Tabuk, Hazrat Abu Bakrra presented his entire wealth to the Holy Prophetsa, which had a total value of 4,000 dirhams. (Sharh al-Zurqani ‘ala al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, Vol. 3, Thumma Ghazwat Tabuk [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1996], p. 69)
When the Holy Prophetsa commanded the companions to prepare for the expedition to Tabuk, he sent a message to the tribes around Mecca and the other tribes of Arabia to accompany him.
The Holy Prophetsa ordered the affluent companions to spend their wealth and provide mounts in the way of Allah, and this was the last expedition in which the Holy Prophetsa participated. Thus, on this occasion, the first person to bring their wealth was Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra. Hazrat Abu Bakrra brought everything he owned, which was equal to 4,000 dirhams. The Holy Prophetsa asked him, “Have you left anything at home for your family?” Hazrat Abu Bakrra replied, “I have left [the name of] Allah and His Messengersa.” Hazrat Umar bin al-Khattabra brought half of his entire wealth. The Holy Prophetsa asked him, “Have you left anything at home for your family?” He replied that he had left behind half of his wealth. On that occasion, Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Aufra offered 100 Auqiah, which was equal to approximately 4,000 dirhams. Then, the Holy Prophetsa said, “Usman bin Affan and Abdur Rahman bin ‘Auf are among the treasuries of Allah the Almighty on earth, who spend in order to attain the pleasure of Allah.” They had contributed a lot of wealth.
On the same occasion, women also offered their jewellery for this cause, and Hazrat Asim bin Adira offered 70 Wasq [unit of measurement] of dates, which is equal to approximately 262 maunds. (‘Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 3, Ghazwat Tabuk [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2002], pp. 183-184), (Lughat al-Hadith, Vol. 1, p. 82, Awqiyah), (Lughat al-Hadith, Vol. 4, p. 487, Wasq, Vol. 2, p. 648, Saa’)
If one maund is approximately 40 kilograms, then this would come up to just over a ton; or about ten and a half tons.
Zaid bin Asslam narrates from his father, “I heard Hazrat Umar bin al-Khattabra saying, ‘The Holy Prophetsa told us to give alms, and at that time, I had some wealth. I thought to myself that today, I will surpass Abu Bakr. If there is a day that I shall surpass him, then it is today.’ Hazrat Umarra continued, ‘I offered half of all my wealth. The Holy Prophetsa asked, “What have you left behind for your family?” I humbly submitted, “I have left for my family as much as I have brought with me.” Then, Hazrat Abu Bakrra brought all the wealth that he had (when Hazrat Abu Bakrra arrived, Hazrat Umarra explained that Hazrat Abu Bakrra had brought all the wealth he owned). The Holy Prophetsa asked, “O Abu Bakr, what have you left behind for your family?” He submitted, “I have left [the name of] Allah and His Messengersa for them.”’ Hazrat Umarra said, ‘By Allah, I can never surpass him in anything.’” (Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Kitab al-Manaqib, Bab Raja‘ih an Yakuna Abu Bakr…, Hadith 3675)
The Promised Messiahas states:
“There was a time when people would sacrifice their lives for the sake of Allah’s religion like goats and sheep. How should I describe the spending of their wealth! On more than one occasion, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra brought all the wealth he owned, to the extent that he did not even leave behind a needle. Likewise, Umarra readily spent according to his means and Uthmanra spent according to his capacity and status. In a similar manner and according to their respective ranks, all the companions were ready to sacrifice their wealth and lives for the sake of this divine religion.”
Then, the Promised Messiahas states in regard to those who take bai’at [oath of allegiance]:
“There are some who take the bai’at and also proclaim to give precedence to their faith over worldly matters, but when the time comes for contributing from their wealth and presenting a sacrifice, they cling onto their pockets tightly. Can anyone with this extent of love for the world answer a religious calling? Can such people be of any benefit? Never, absolutely not!”
The Promised Messiahas further states:
“Allah the Almighty states:
لَن تَنَالُواْ الۡبِرَّ حَتَّىٰ تُنفِقُواْ مِمَّا تُحِبُّونَ
‘You cannot truly perform virtuous deeds unless you spend out of that which you love.’” (Malfuzat, Vol. 6, p. 40, footnote)
There is an incident about Hazrat Abu Bakrra assisting the Holy Prophetsa in burying a deceased companion. In this regard, Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas‘udra reports,
“I accompanied the Holy Prophetsa during the expedition of Tabuk. I woke up one night and noticed some light coming from a fire that was lit on one flank of the army, so I went toward it to see what it was. There, I saw the Holy Prophetsa, Hazrat Abu Bakrra and Hazrat Umarra. I saw that Hazrat Abdullah Dhu al-Bijadain Muzanira had passed away, and they had already dug his grave. The Holy Prophetsa was standing in the grave, while Hazrat Abu Bakrra and Hazrat Umarra were lowering the body into the grave. The Holy Prophetsa was saying, ‘You both should lower your brother toward me.’ Thus, Hazrat Abu Bakrra and Hazrat Umarra lowered the body of Hazrat Abdullah Dhu al-Bijadainra towards the Holy Prophetsa. When the Holy Prophetsa had placed him in the grave, he offered the prayer:
اللّٰهُمَّ إنِّيْ أَمْسَيْتُ رَاضِيًا عَنْهُ فَارْضَ عَنْهُ
That is, ‘O Allah, I spent the day until the evening in a state that I was pleased with him, pray be pleased with him as well.’”
Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas‘udra says, “At that moment, I wished that I was the one being buried.” (Ibn Hisham, Sirat Ibn Hisham, Kitab Rasulsa Allah li Sahib Ilah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-’Ilmiyyah, 2001], p. 822)
Hazrat Abdullan Dhu al-Bijadainra was from the tribe of Banu Muzainah. It is recorded that he was still young when his father passed away. He did not receive any inheritance. His paternal uncle was very wealthy. That same uncle took him under his care until he himself became wealthy. When he accepted Islam at the time of the Conquest of Mecca, his uncle took everything away from him to the extent that his lower garment was also taken away. Then, his mother came and ripped her cloak into two pieces, and Hazrat Abdullahra used one piece as a lower garment and wrapped himself with the other piece. He then came to Madinah and lay down in the mosque. He also offered the morning prayer with the Holy Prophetsa.
Hazrat Abdullahra said that it was the practice of the Holy Prophetsa, that after offering the morning prayer, he would look carefully at everyone present to see if there was someone new amongst them. The Holy Prophetsa saw Hazrat Abdullahra and did not recognise him, so he asked him, “Who are you?” Hazrat Abdullahra mentioned his lineage. In one narration, it is reported that Hazrat Abdullahra submitted, “My name is Abdul Uzza.” Upon this, the Holy Prophetsa said, “Your name is Abdullah Dhu al-Bijadain (the possessor of two cloaks).” The Holy Prophetsa then said, “Stay close to me.” He was included amongst the guests of the Holy Prophetsa and he would teach him the Holy Quran until he had memorised a large portion. He had a very loud voice. (Mustafa ‘Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-‘Ibad, Vol. 5, Fi Ghazwat Tabuk [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1993], pp. 259-260), (‘Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghabah fi Ma’rifat al-Sahabah, Vol. 3 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2003], p. 229)
It is recorded with regards to Hazrat Abu Bakrra being the leader for Hajj, that in 9 AH, the Holy Prophetsa appointed him as the Amir [leader] of Hajj and sent him to Mecca. Details of this are that when the Holy Prophetsa returned from Tabuk, he decided to perform Hajj. He was told that the disbelievers join in with others on the occasion of Hajj, and so they would be present there reciting idolatrous incantations while circling the Kabah without any clothes on. Upon hearing this, the Holy Prophetsa decided not to perform Hajj that year, and appointed Hazrat Abu Bakrra as the leader. (Ibn Hisham, Al-Raud al-Unf fi Tafsir al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 4, Hajj Abi Bakrra bi al-Nas… [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah], pp. 318-219), (Badr al-Din Mahmud Ibn Ahmad Aini, ‘Umdat al-Qari, Kitab al-Hajj, Bab la Yatufu bi al-Bait ‘Uryan, Vol. 9 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Ihya’ al-Turath al-‘Arabi, 2003], p. 384)
Hazrat Abu Bakrra set out from Madinah along with 300 companions, and the Holy Prophetsa sent 20 animals for sacrifice along with them. The Holy Prophetsa put collars around their necks and marked them himself in order to indicate that these were sacrificial animals. Hazrat Abu Bakrra also took five sacrificial animals of his own. (‘Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 3, Bab Sarayuh wa Bu’uthuh… [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2002], p. 295)
It is narrated that Hazrat Alira announced the initial verses of Surah al-Taubah on the occasion of Hajj. The narration is as follows:
Abu Ja‘far Muhammad bin Ali narrates that when Surah Bara‘ah (i.e. Surah al-Taubah) was revealed to the Holy Prophetsa, he had already sent Hazrat Abu Bakrra as the leader for Hajj. It was suggested to the Holy Prophetsa that he should convey this chapter to Hazrat Abu Bakrra so that he may recite it there. The Holy Prophetsa said that none other than someone from his own family could fulfil this task on his behalf. He then summoned Hazrat Alira and instructed him to take what had been stated in the beginning of Surah al-Taubah and announce it among the people on the day of sacrifice when they gather in Mina that no disbelievers shall enter Paradise, and after that year, none of the disbelievers would be allowed to perform Hajj. No one would be allowed to perform circuits around the House of Allah while naked, and whoever entered into a treaty with the Holy Prophetsa its period would be fulfilled.
Hazrat Ali bin Abi Talibra took the Holy Prophet’ssa camel Adba and set out, and met Hazrat Abu Bakrra along the way. Hazrat Alira met Hazrat Abu Bakrra either in Arj or the Valley of Dajnan. Arj is a valley between Mecca and Madinah where caravans would encamp; Dajnan is a place on the outskirts of Mecca, at a distance of 25 miles on route to Madinah. When Hazrat Abu Bakrra saw Hazrat Alira along the way, he asked whether he had been appointed as the amir or whether he would be under his leadership. This was the degree of Hazrat Abu Bakr’sra humility, he immediately asked whether the Holy Prophetsa had sent Hazrat Alira as the amir or if Hazrat Alira would work under his leadership in the convoy. Hazrat Alira said that he would be under Hazrat Abu Bakr’sra leadership, and then both of them continued on.
Hazrat Abu Bakrra oversaw all matters relating to Hajj. That year, the people of Arabia set up their camps in the same places where they used to during the time of ignorance. When the day of sacrifice arrived, Hazrat Alira stood and announced that which the Holy Prophetsa had instructed him to say:
“O people, no disbeliever shall enter Paradise and after this year, no disbeliever shall perform Hajj, nor shall anyone be allowed to perform circuits of the House of Allah while naked. Whoever has a treaty with the Holy Prophetsa, its term shall be completed. From the day of this announcement, the people will be given a period of four months, so that every tribe can return to their places of security or dwellings. Thereafter, there shall be no oath or treaty with a disbeliever nor will they be entrusted with any duty, excluding those oaths and treaties which have already been formed with the Holy Prophetsa for a set period of time (in other words, those treaties for which the stipulated timeframe still remained). Aside from these treaties, there will be no new treaties. The existing treaties made with the Holy Prophetsa will be honoured according to their fixed time period.”
After that year, no disbeliever performed Hajj, nor did anyone perform circuits of the Kabah while naked.
In another narration, Hazrat Alira is recorded to have said:
“Hazrat Abu Bakrra came to Arafah and addressed the people. When he completed his address, he turned to me and said, ‘O Ali, stand and deliver the message sent by the Holy Prophetsa.’ I stood and recited the [first] 40 verses of Surah Bara‘ah to them.” Thereafter, both Hazrat Alira and Hazrat Abu Bakrra returned to the Holy Prophetsa. (Ibn Hisham, Sirat Ibn Hisham, Hajj Abi Bakrra bi al-Nas… [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-’Ilmiyyah, 2001], p. 832), (‘Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 12, Bab Sarayuh wa Bu’uthuh… [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1993], p. 73), (Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, Vol. 7, Dhikr Ba’th Rasulsa Allah Aba Bakrra Amiran ‘Ala al-Hajj… [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Hajr, 1997], pp. 228-229), (Yaqut Ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Hamawi, Mu’jam al-Buldan, Vol. 3 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah], p. 515), (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 198)
These narrations will continue. At this time, I wish to mention a deceased member who recently passed away. God-willing, I will also lead her funeral prayer. Respected Amatul Latif Khurshid Sahiba, who was residing in Canada; she was the wife of the late Sheikh Khurshid Ahmad Sahib, Assistant Editor Al Fazl Rabwah. She recently passed away at the age of 95,
إِنَّا لِلّٰهِ وَإِنَّآ إِلَيۡهِ رَٰجِعُونَ
[Verily, to Allah we belong and to Him shall we return]
She was a musia by the grace of Allah the Almighty. She was the paternal granddaughter of Hazrat Mian Fazal Muhammadra of Harsiyan, and the maternal granddaughter of Hazrat Hakeem Allah Bakhsh Sahibra, who served as a gatekeeper at the residence of Hazrat Amman Jaanra. Both individuals were companions of the Promised Messiahas. She was the eldest daughter of respected Mian Abdurrahim Diyanat Sahib, a Dervish of Qadian and Amina Begum Sahiba.
She attended middle school at Nusrat Girl’s High School in Qadian and then she enrolled in Jamia Nusrat in 1943/44. She studied in Jamia Nusrat for two years, after which she studied privately, and then passed the Adeeb Alim examinations. She was married to Sheikh Khurshid Ahmad Sahib, Assistance Editor Al Fazl, as I mentioned earlier. Their nikah was announced by Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IIra in Masjid Mubarak. Allah the Almighty granted her three sons and two daughters. She was the sister of Abdul Basit Shahid Sahib, a missionary who resides here these days [in the UK] and also worked in London for some time. Basit Sahib also served in Africa. One of her grandsons, Waqas Ahmad Khurshid is a missionary in the USA. She belonged to a well-educated family. One of her sisters Amatul Bari Nasir Sahiba also renders various services in line with her field of expertise.
Amatul Latif Sahiba began serving Lajna Imaillah in various capacities from the age of 13 and her years of service spanned 70 years. She worked under the guidance of Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IIra, the tutelage of Hazrat Umm-ul-Mumineen, Sayyida Nusrat Jahan Begum Sahibara and the supervision of various other elders. She served in Qadian, and then on the partition of the Indian subcontinent, according to the instructions of Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IIra and the late Hazrat Choti Apa, she served as the in-charge of female immigrants.
Similarly, she had the opportunity of serving Lajna in various capacities; she also served as the Secretary Isha‘at [publications] for an extended period of time. She was the editor of Misbah from 1979 to 1986. She had been residing in Canada since 1986 where she was an honourary advisor for Lajna Imaillah. Under the publications department, she rendered great help in compiling the first four volumes of the history of Lajna Imaillah, Al Masabih and Al Izhar. She had the honour of working with Hazrat Choti Apa for 44 years. It was also under her leadership and supervision that the first Ijtema [gathering] of Nasiratul Ahmadiyya was held. While she was the Secretary Nasirat, Amatul Latif Sahiba, along with her husband Sheikh Khurshid Sahib, compiled various historical accounts related to faith and the Ahmadiyya Community.
Her son Laiq Ahmad Khurshid says:
“Our late mother taught her children a profound lesson which was that we should not entertain anything said against the Jamaat or Khilafat. Even if we did hear anything then we should never repeat it or say anything about it, because Allah the Almighty especially helps the Jamaat and Khilafat. She would say that after every trial and disorder, God Almighty manifests signs in favour of the Jamaat, thus we should never fall prey to any sort of disarray.” He writes, “She was a walking encyclopaedia of the Jamaat. She was very sociable and wished well for everyone. She trusted God and had a passion for serving others and she would avidly take part in helping to settle immigrants who arrived in Canada.”
Another one of her children writes:
“Our mother had a profound love for Khilafat. She always urged and reminded us to pray for the Khalifa. She was very regular and careful in offering her prayers. Friday was like a day of Eid for her.”
Regarding her love for the Holy Quran she says:
“She taught numerous children the recitation of the Holy Quran and would especially focus on its correct pronunciation.” Her grandson Waqas Khurshid who is a missionary says, “She would always draw my attention towards prayers and studies. By telling stories, she would teach children about the history of the Jamaat and in order to properly tend to their moral training.”
One of her granddaughters says:
“My grandmother had nine granddaughters; not only did she see to the moral training of us girls so that we become servants of Lajna Imaillah, she was also a constant guide for us in learning manners, how to properly observe the veil, tending to the house, being hospitable, sowing, reading and writing Urdu. As we grew older, she encouraged us to take care of our husbands and in-laws and she would be very happy when we told her that we had spent time with our in-laws. Along with fulfilling these duties, she also encouraged us to become well-educated and work towards our careers. She was firm against non-Islamic practices such as celebrating birthdays, but she would commemorate birthdays and other important occasions by encouraging us to remain as one family unit and we would sing the poem “Hamd-o-thana”, and offer prayers together.” She continues, “As Ahmadi Muslims living in Canada, she was a crucial part of our upbringing. She taught us how to balance our faith and Western society.”
This is the duty of mothers and elders, which is vital to safeguard the next generation. They must understand how to raise the next generation; they must teach them the faith while living in this society, and teach them how to adjust without letting them feel any sort of inferiority complex.
May Allah the Almighty bestow His forgiveness and mercy upon her, elevate her station, and enable her children and progeny to carry on her virtues.
(Official Urdu transcript published in Al Fazl International 4 March 2022, pp. 5-9. Translated by The Review of Religions.)