17 June 2022
Men of Excellence: Hazrat Abu Bakrra
After reciting the tashahhud, ta‘awuz and Surah al-Fatihah, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih Vaa said:
In the previous Friday Sermon, I mentioned that the accounts in relation to the apostates and the hypocrites who waged war in the Battle of Yamamah – namely Musailimah Kazzab and his comrades – had come to a conclusion.
There are some accounts remaining with regard to the apostates who raised arms during the time of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra. As I said, a number of expeditions took place. The first expedition has already been mentioned in great detail. Out of the remaining 10 expeditions, the following is stated with regard to the second and third expedition:
These expeditions were led by Hazrat Huzayfara and Hazrat Arfajahra against the rebellious apostates of Oman. Oman is a city in Yemen [area], situated close to Bahrain. It is situated between the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea. At that time, it also comprised of the eastern regions of the present-day United Arab Emirates.
Oman was home to the idolatrous tribe of Azd as well as other Zoroastrian tribes. Muscat, Sohar and Dibba were cities located on the coast. During the blessed era of the Holy Prophetsa, Oman was part of the Persian government and an individual by the name of Jaifar was appointed as its governor. Zoroastrianism had spread across this region. For the purpose of propagating the message of Islam, in 8 AH, the Holy Prophetsa sent a letter with Hazrat Abu Zaid Ansarira and Hazrat Amrra bin al-Aas to two brothers – Jaifar bin Julundi and Abbad bin Julundi, who were chieftains of that area. The content of the letter sent by the Holy Prophetsa was as follows:
“In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful. This letter is from Muhammad, servant of Allah and His Messenger, addressed to Jaifar and Abbad, the sons of Julundi. Peace be upon those who have followed the guidance. I invite you to accept Islam. You should embrace Islam and as a result you will remain safeguarded. I am the Messenger of Allah and have been sent to the entire world, so that I may warn all those who are living and convey the arguments to the disbelievers. If you accept Islam, then in accordance with the established practice, I shall allow you to remain as leaders. However, if you refuse to accept Islam, then your authority shall be seized.” (Dr Ibrahim Hasan, Sirat Hazrat Amrra bin al-Aas– Urdu Translation by Sheikh Muhammad Ahmad Pani Pati) (Imam Abu al-Hasan Ahmad bin Yahya al-Buladhari, Futuh al-Buldan [Mu‘assisat al-Ma‘arif, Beirut, 1987] pp. 103-104) (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 209) (Atlas Sirat Nabawisa, p. 68, Maktabah Dar al-Islam, 1424 AH)
According to some narrations, the two brothers accepted Islam after days of debating the matter. According to another narration, the ruler of Oman, Jaifar, stated, “I find no reason to reject Islam; however, I do fear that if I collect the Zakat from here and send it to Medina, my people will turn against me.”
Upon this, Hazrat Amrra bin al-Aas suggested to him that the Zakat collected from the people of that area would be spent on the poor members of that very region. And so, he accepted Islam. Hazrat Amrra stayed there for two years and continued to convey the message of Islam to the people. Owing to his successful preaching endeavours, most people in that region accepted Islam. When the Holy Prophetsa passed away and when apostasy and rebellion had spread across the whole of Arabia, Hazrat Abu Bakrra asked Hazrat Amrra bin al-Aas to come to Medina from Oman. Following the demise of the Holy Prophetsa, Laqit bin Malik Azdi rose up. His title was Dhu al-Taj [possessor of the crown] and during the era of ignorance, he was given the same status as Julundi, the governor of Oman.
Julundi was the title given to the kings of Oman. In any case, he had claimed prophethood and the ignorant people of Oman followed him. He gained power over Oman and so Jaifar and his brother Abbad had to take refuge in the mountains. Jaifar informed Hazrat Abu Bakrra about all these events and sought help. Hazrat Abu Bakrra sent two commanders; one was Huzayfa bin Mihsan Ghalfani Himyarira who was sent to Oman and the other was Arfajah bin Harsamah Bariki Yazdira who was sent towards Mahra. Both were sent with the instructions to travel together and to start the battle from Oman. Mahra was the name of a Yemeni tribe. [Hazrat Abu Bakrra] instructed that when the battle would begin in Oman, Huzayfara would be the leader and when there was a battle in Mahra, he would fulfil the duties of commander-in-chief.
An introduction to Hazrat Huzayfara and Hazrat Arfajahra is that according to Tarikh Al-Tabari, Hazrat Huzayfa’s name was Huzayfa bin Mihsan Ghalfani, whereas according to a book on the life of Companions, his name was Huzayfa Qal‘ani. He remained the governor of Oman until the demise of Hazrat Abu Bakrra.
According to a book on the lives of the Companions, Hazrat Arfajah’sra full name was Arfajah bin Huzaimah. According to Allamah Ibn Athir, his father’s name was Harthamah who was renowned for his war strategies against his enemies. Hazrat Abu Bakrra sent Hazrat Ikrimah bin Abi Jahlra to assist both of them.
Previously, during the accounts relating to the Battle of Yamamah, with reference to Musailimah Kazzab, it was mentioned that when Hazrat Abu Bakrra sent Hazrat Ikrimahra to combat the wave of apostasy and rebellion and sent Shurahbilra bin Hasanah for his support, he instructed Ikrimahra that he should not attack prior to the arrival of Shurahbilra. However, he did not wait for him and launched an attack as a result of which he suffered defeat. Due to this, Hazrat Abu Bakrra expressed his displeasure at him and instructed him to go to Oman.
According to Hazrat Abu Bakr’sra instruction, Ikrimahra set out for Oman to help Arfajahra and Huzayfara. Before the two reached Oman, Ikrimahra met them at a place called Rijam and they sent a message to Jaifar and his brother, Abbad. According to some books of history such as Al-Kamil, by Ibn Athir, his name is recorded as Ayyaz. Rijam is a vast mountain range in Oman. In any case, after receiving this message from the leaders of the Muslim army, Jaifar and Abbad came out from the residence in which they were hiding after the apostate [ruler] had claimed prophethood and had formed an army which grew in strength. In any case they came out from where they were staying and they set up camp in Sohar. They sent a message to Huzayfara, Arfajahra and Ikrimahra that they should all come and join them. Sohar is also a village in a mountainous area of Oman. It is recorded that there would be a market there for the first five nights of Rajab. Hence the Muslim army gathered in Sohar and eliminated the apostates from nearby areas.
When Laqit bin Malik learned of the Islamic army’s arrival he set out with his army in order to confront them and encamped at a place called Dibba. He placed women, children and their provisions at the rear, so as to strengthen them in war. Dibba was a city in that area and was a centre for trading. The Muslim leaders sent letters to the chieftains accompanying Laqit, beginning with the chief of the Banu Judaid tribe. Those chieftains also wrote letters replying to the Muslim leaders. The result of this correspondence was that all of those chieftains left Laqit and joined the Muslims. (Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghabah fi Ma‘rifat al-Sahabah, Vol. 4 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2008], pp. 21-22) (Al-Mufassil fi Tarikh al-Arab Qabl al-Islam, Ch. 46, Insab al-Qaba’il, Vol. 4, p. 329, Maktabah Jarir, 2006) (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], pp. 291-292) (Muhammad al-Salabi, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiqra Shakhsiyyat aur Karname [Khan Garh, Pakistan: Al-Furqan Trust], p. 338) (Yaqut Ibn Abd Allah al-Hamawi, Mu‘jam al-Buldan, Vol. 5 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi], p. 270) (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 170)
In Dibba, a vicious battle took place; initially, Laqit had the upper hand and it was nigh that the Muslims suffered defeat; however, Allah the Almighty bestowed His favour and benevolence and sent down His assistance in that delicate hour. Various tribes from Bahrain and a large battalion from Banu Abd al-Qais arrived as reinforcements, which greatly strengthened them. They launched a strong attack against Laqit’s army, as a result of which they lost their footing and ran away. The Muslims chased after them and killed 10,000 of their warriors and imprisoned the women and children.
They seized control of the wealth and market of which they sent one-fifth to Hazrat Abu Bakrra through Arfajahra. Hence, in this way, the disorder in Oman was eradicated and the Muslim rule was established upon firm foundations. After the battle, Huzayfara took up residence in Oman and became engaged in improving the conditions there and establishing peace and security. As mentioned previously, Arfajahra went to Medina with the spoils and Hazrat Ikrimahra went with his army to Mahra in order to eliminate the rebellion there. (Muhammad al-Salabi, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiqra Shakhsiyyat aur Karname [Khan Garh, Pakistan: Maktabah al-Furqan], pp. 338-339) (Muhammad Husain Haikal, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra – Translated by Sheikh Muhammad Ahmad Pani Piti [Lahore: Maktabah Jadid], pp. 244-245)
It is recorded with regard to Hazrat Ikrimah’sra expeditions against the apostates and rebels that Hazrat Abu Bakrra granted one of the flags to Hazrat Ikrimahra and instructed him to confront Musailimah. (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], p. 257)
In order to combat Musailimah, Hazrat Abu Bakrra sent Hazrat Ikrimahra to Yamamah and then sent Hazrat Shurahbilra bin Hasanah in support. Hazrat Abu Bakrra sent both of them to Yamamah; however, he had told Ikrimahra not to attack until Shurahbilra reached there. However, Ikrimahra acted in haste, as has been mentioned before, and advanced with an attack before the arrival of Shurahbil, as a result of which Musailimah pushed them back and defeated them. When Hazrat Shurahbilra bin Hasanah learned about what happened, he remained where he was. Hazrat Abu Bakrra wrote to Shurahbilra saying that he should remain close to Yamamah until he received his next set of instructions from him. (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], p. 291)
Hazrat Abu Bakrra wrote to Ikrimahra that he would not even look at him – as has been mentioned before – and that he would not listen to anything he had to say until he achieved some great feat and did something extraordinary. Only then should he return to him. He then said that he should go to Oman and help Huzayfara and Arfajahra in combatting the people of Oman.
In any case, as it has already been mentioned, Oman was part of the Persian Gulf [region] which also included the eastern areas of the United Arab Emirates of today. The idolatrous tribe Azd resided there along with others who were Zoroastrians. Muscat, Sohar and Dibba were cities located along its coast. Hazrat Abu Bakrra also said that each one of them were to command over the cavalry; however, when they were in the areas led by Huzayfara, he would be the overall commander and that when they had completed their mission, they should proceed to Mahra and then from there they should go to Yemen. They should remain with Muhajir bin Abi Umayyah while tending to the matters of Yemen and Hadarmaut and that they should punish those who had become apostates between Oman and Yemen. He said that he hoped to receive news of their achievements in battle. (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], p. 291) (Atlas Sirat Nabawisa, p. 68, Maktabah Dar al-Islam, 1424 AH)
These were the instructions given by Hazrat Abu Bakrra.
In any case, before Ikrimahra set out, Huzayfara bin Mihsan Ghalfani went to Oman, and Arfajah Barikira went to Mahra to fight the apostates according to the instructions of Hazrat Abu Bakrra and Ikrimahra set out later with his army to assist Arfajahra and Huzayfara. Ikrimahra met them both before they reached Oman. Prior to this, Hazrat Abu Bakrra clearly instructed them that after completing their task in Oman, they should act according to the opinion of Ikrimahra, whether he asked them to accompany him ahead or ordered them to stay in Oman.
Nonetheless, as it has already been mentioned, when these three commanders converged at Rijam – a place in the near vicinity of Oman – they sent their messengers to Jaifer and Abbad. At the same time, when Laqit heard of their army approaching, he gathered his forces and went to Dibba to set up his encampment. Jaifer and Abbad also set forth from their settlements and set up their encampments in Sohar. They also sent for Huzayfara, Arfajahra and Ikrimahra to all come to their location. Therefore, as it has been mentioned, they all came to the two of them and gathered in Sohar. Thereafter, they purged their regions of apostates until there was peace with all the people in their surrounding areas. Furthermore, the three [aforementioned] commanders also wrote letters to the chieftain associates of Laqit. They took the initiative to reach out to the chief of Banu Judaid, and in response, the chieftains wrote letters to the Muslims. As it was mentioned, this resulted in the chieftains parting ways from Laqit. Following this, the army of Laqit fought an intense battle against the Muslims, the details of which have already been mentioned. After this expedition, Ikrimahra and Huzayfara unanimously decided amongst each other that Huzayfara would stay back in Oman to reconcile matters and grant assurance of peace to the people, while Hazrat Ikrimahra would advance with the main Muslim forces against other [rebellious] idolaters to crush them. He [Ikrimahra] started his advance for the battle from Mahra. (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2012], p. 292)
In respect to Hazrat Ikrimahra advancing against the tribe of Mahra, it is recorded as follows:
“After suppressing the apostates in Oman, Ikrimahra and his army set forth to another region in Najd, namely towards the tribe of Mahra.”
It is further recorded:
“He requested help from the people of Oman and those in the surrounding area to partake in this expedition. They continued to advance forward until they reached the area where the Mahra tribe resided. They were accompanied by people from different tribes as Hazrat Ikrimahra mounted an attack against Mahra and its surrounding settlements. In defence against them, the people of Mahra split into two groups; one group had fortified Jayrut under the leadership of a man named Shikhrit, while the other group was under the leadership of Musabbah, who belonged to the Banu Maharib tribe of Najd. In fact, all of the armies in Mahra were under Musabbah’s command, except the contingent that was under the leadership of Shikhrit. Both these chieftains were at odds with one another and each of them tried to convince the other to join their side. All the warriors within their armies only desired for their own leader to be successful. This was the factor through which Allah the Almighty granted help to the Muslims and strengthened them against their enemy, rendering them weak.
“When Ikrimahra observed that Shikhrit was accompanied by a small number of people, he invited him to return to Islam”, he was a Muslim prior to this, “and said, ‘Accept Islam once again and cease your battle against the Muslims.’ It so happened that upon this initial invitation, Shikhrit accepted Islam and in this way, Allah the Almighty weakened Musabbah even more. Following this, Ikrimahra sent a messenger to Musabbah to invite him back to Islam and to shun disbelief; however, he was deceived by the large number of people he had in his ranks. Owing to Shikhrit’s acceptance of Islam, the disagreement between him and Musabbah increased even more. Nonetheless, both Ikrimahra and Shikhrit mounted an attack against Musabbah in Najd and a battle ensued that was far more severe than the battle fought in Dibba. Allah made the forces of the rebellious apostates accept defeat and their leader was killed. The Muslims pursued those who fled and killed many of them, while a great many were taken as prisoners of war. The Muslims also took 2000 camels of an excellent breed as spoils from this battle.”
Hazrat Ikrimahra divided the spoils of war into five parts and sent the khums [one-fifth of the spoils of war reserved for Allah and His messengersa] with Shikhrit for Hazrat Abu Bakrra. The remaining four parts were distributed amongst the Muslims. In this way, Ikrimahra and his army was further strengthened by their acquisition of mounts, wealth, provisions and supplies. Hazrat Ikrimahra stayed in that area and gathered all the people, all of whom accepted Islam. Hazrat Ikrimahsa sent news of this victory to Hazrat Abu Bakrra with a messenger named Sa’ib. (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], pp. 292-293)
Then, there is mention of Hazrat Ikrimah’sra expeditions in Yemen. In his letter to Hazrat Ikrimahra – which has already been mentioned – Hazrat Abu Bakrra instructed him to go towards Yemen after [conquering] Mahra, to accompany Hazrat Muhajirra bin Abi Umayyah in dealing with matters of Hadramaut and to suppress those who rebelled in apostasy between Oman and Yemen. (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], p. 291)
Therefore, in fulfilment of this instruction from Hazrat Abu Bakrra, Hazrat Ikrimahra set forth from Mahra towards Yemen until he reached Abyan. Abyan is also a village in Yemen. He was accompanied by a very large army comprising of people from the tribe of Mahra and many other tribes. Much of Hazrat Ikrimah’sra stay was spent in southern Yemen where he remained occupied suppressing uprisings in the tribes of Nakha and Himyar, after which there was no longer a need to go towards northern Yemen. After capturing the runaways of the Nakha tribe, Hazrat Ikrimahra gathered the people and asked them, “What is your opinion of Islam?” They replied, “In the age of ignorance, we were religious people who were attached to our faith. We did not fight against other Arab tribes. What will become of us when we accept the religion whose superiority is well-known to us and whose love has already entered our hearts?” In other words, love for Islam has taken root in their hearts.
When Hazrat Ikrimahra investigated whether what they were saying was from the heart or whether they were just trying to save themselves, he found out that they were telling the truth. The general population remained firm on Islam, although a few among the elite turned to apostasy and fled. In this manner, Hazrat Ikrimahra absolved the tribes of Nakha and Himyar of the allegations of apostasy and stayed there so they can re-organise themselves. (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], p. 298) (Muhammad Husain Haikal, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra – Translated by Sheikh Muhammad Ahmad Pani Piti [Jhelum: Book Corner Showroom], p. 233) (Mu‘jam al-Buldan, Vol. 1, p. 109)
Hazrat Ikrimah’sra stay in Abyan had a great impact on the little remaining followers of Aswad Ansi, who were led by Qais bin Maqshuh and Amr bin Ma‘di Karib. After fleeing from Sana, Qais continued to make rounds of Sana while Amr bin Ma‘di Karib had joined the party of Aswad Ansi in Lahj. However, when Hazrat Ikrimahra arrived in Abyan, both – Qais and Amr bin Ma‘di Karib – joined forces to fight against him. Their alliance was short-lived as they quickly became conflicted and separated. In this way, Hazrat Ikrimah’sra approach from the east played a key role in bringing an end to apostate groups in Lahj. (Muhammad al-Salabi, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiqra Shakhsiyyat aur Karname [Khan Garh, Pakistan: Maktabah al-Furqan], p. 204)
Adjacent to Yemen was the tribe of Kindah, located in the region of Hadramaut. The governor of this area was Hazrat Ziyadra bin Labid. He was strict in matters of Zakat as a result of which the people rebelled against him. Thus, Hazrat Ikrimahra and Hazrat Muhajirra bin Abi Ummayah both came to his aid. The details of this will be mentioned alongside the details of Hazrat Muhajirra bin Abi Ummayah. Nonetheless, when Hazrat Ikrimahra made preparations for his return to Madinah following his efforts against the apostates, he had along with him the daughter of Nu‘man bin Jaun whom he married during one of the battles.
Even though Hazrat Ikrimahra was aware of the fact that Hazrat Abu Bakrra was extremely displeased with Hazrat Khalidra for marrying Umm Tamim and the daughter of Muja‘ah – this has been mentioned in detail in the previous sermon – despite this, Hazrat Ikrimahra married her. As a result of this, many members from Hazrat Ikrimah’sra army distanced themselves from him. The matter was then presented before Hazrat Muhajirra; however, he too was unable to give a verdict and thus wrote to Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra and informed him of the entire situation and sought his decision on the matter. Hazrat Abu Bakrra wrote back and stated, “Ikrimah has not done anything wrong by marrying her.”
This reassured all those people who were displeased over this [marriage]. It has also been mentioned that the reason why some of the people were displeased with Hazrat Ikrimahra was that Nu‘man bin Jaun presented himself before the Holy Prophetsa and requested him to accept his daughter’s hand in marriage; however, the Holy Prophetsa declined the proposal and sent her back with her father. Since the Holy Prophetsa had already once refused to marry this woman, therefore a section of Hazrat Ikrimah’sra army believed that based on the noble example of the Holy Prophetsa, Hazrat Ikrimahra also should not have married her. However, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra did not accept this argument and said this was a completely wrong view to hold and considered Hazrat Ikrimah’sra marriage to be lawful. Hazrat Ikrimahra, along with his wife, returned to Medina and this particular section of the army which had become displeased with him and separated themselves from him, re-joined him. (Muhammad Husain Haikal, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra – Translated by Sheikh Muhammad Ahmad Pani Piti [Lahore: Shirkat Printing press], p. 242, 243)
The woman [who Hazrat Ikrimahra married] was Asma bint Nu‘man bin Jaun. Her brief introduction is as follows:
There are various narrations recorded in Bukhari and in other books of ahadith with regard to the woman who Hazrat Ikrimahra married. Her nikah was announced with the Holy Prophetsa; however, before the marriage was solemnised, she committed an act as a result of which the Holy Prophetsa sent her back to her tribe.
There are many varying opinions in relation to her name as well as the incidents in connection with her. Some have reported that her marriage took place with Hazrat Muhajirra bin Umaiyyah bin Abi Umaiyyah. In any case, whilst mentioning the details of this incident, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra stated:
“When Arabia was conquered and Islam began to spread, there was a lady from the tribe of Kindah, whose name was Asma or Umaimah, who was also called Jauniya or Bint al-Jaun. Her brother, Luqman, came to the Holy Prophetsa as a representative of his tribe. On that occasion, he also expressed his desire for his sister’s hand to be given in marriage to the Holy Prophetsa. He made the request directly to the Holy Prophetsa saying, ‘My sister, who was previously married to a relative, is now widowed. She is very beautiful and intelligent. Please accept her proposal of marriage.’ As the Holy Prophetsa desired to unite the tribes of Arabia, he accepted this request of his and said that the nikah should be announced on the basis of twelve and a half ounces of silver [as her dowry]. He said, ‘O Messengersa of Allah! We are counted amongst the honourable families. The amount set for this dowry is very little.” The Holy Prophetsa replied, ‘I have not set a higher dowry for any of my wives, nor for any of my daughters.’ Once he expressed his satisfaction, the nikah was announced. Furthermore, he requested the Holy Prophetsa to send a person in order to bring his wife. The Holy Prophetsa appointed Abu Usaid for this task. He went there. Jauniya invited him to her home upon which Hazrat Usaid said that the wives of the Holy Prophetsa have been instructed to observe the veil. Upon this, she inquired about further guidance, which he imparted to her. He then brought her to Madinah on a camel and settled her in a house, which was surrounded by date palms. The relatives of this lady sent her wet-nurse along with her.”
Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra writes:
“In our countries, affluent people send female maids along with them [i.e. with the newly married woman], so that she does not experience any kind of discomfort. As this lady was known for her beauty and as is customary that the women wish to meet a new bride in the area, the women of Medina also went to see her. And according to her own testimony, another lady had taught her to impose her authority from the very first day. She was told that when the Holy Prophetsa approaches, she should say, ‘I seek Allah’s protection from you.’ In this manner, he will become more fond of you.’
“If this was not a fabrication of this lady [who got married]”, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra says, “it is very possible that a hypocrite schemed this mischief through his wife or another relative. Nevertheless, when the Holy Prophetsa received the news of her arrival, he went to the house which was designated for her. In the ahadith, it is written (and the translation of it is) that when the Holy Prophetsa approached her, he said to her, ‘Present yourself to me [through this marriage].’ Upon this she replied, ‘Does a queen offer herself to an ordinary man?’” God forbid, she considered herself to be of a higher status. “Abu Usaid says that as the Holy Prophetsa thought that she was nervous due to not being familiar with him, he placed his hand on her in order to comfort her. As soon as he placed his hand on her, she uttered these utmost abhorrent and inappropriate words that ‘I seek Allah’s protection from you.’
“As a prophet becomes humbled when he hears the name of God the Exalted and is awestruck by His magnificence, the Holy Prophetsa immediately said upon hearing her words ‘You have sought refuge and protection of the Highest Being, Who grants protection in great abundance. Therefore, I accept your request.’ Hence, the Holy Prophetsa immediately came out of the house and said ‘O Abu Usaid! Give her two pieces of cloth and send her to her family.’ Hence, following that, apart from her dowry, the Holy Prophetsa instructed to give her two sheets as a gesture of kindness.”
There were two long sheets of white cloth of a really good quality given to her.
“This was done in order to fulfil the commandment of the Holy Quran:
وَلَا تَنسَوُاْ لۡفَضۡلَ بَيۡنَكُمۡ
“[‘Do not forget to do good to one another’. (Ch.2: V.238)] This [verse] is in relation to women, who are divorced without having consummated the marriage. The Holy Prophetsa sent her away and Abu Usaid brought her to her home. This matter was very burdensome for the people of her tribe and they scolded her. However, she continued to reply that it was her ill fortune. At times, she even said that she was deceived and told that when the Holy Prophetsa approached her, she should step aside and express a sense of dislike. In this manner, she would impose her rank on him. Whether this was the reason or something else, she expressed a sense of dislike and the Holy Prophetsa separated himself from her and sent her away.” (Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 2, pp. 533-535)
I have mentioned this once before as well and in relation to a companion, Hazrat Usaid. In any case, Hazrat Ikrimahra returned to Medina from Kindah and Hadramaut along the route of Mecca and Yemen. When he arrived in Medina, Hazrat Abu Bakrra instructed him to go and help Khalid bin Saeed. Hazrat Ikrimahra had sent his army on leave which had previously fought against the apostates. Hazrat Abu Bakrra prepared another army for him in its place. The reason why they were given leave was that he felt that they had become tired from after having taken part in such a major expedition. In any case, Hazrat Abu Bakrra prepared another army and instructed them to assemble under the flag of Ikrimahra and depart for Syria. (Muhammad al-Salabi, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiqra Shakhsiyyat aur Karname [Khan Garh, Pakistan: Maktabah al-Furqan], 433, Footnote)
The details of Hazrat Ikrimah’sra extraordinary achievements in Syria and his fighting with such great bravery and embracing martyrdom will, insha-Allah, be mentioned in relation to the expeditions that took place in Syria.
The fifth expedition was led by Hazrat Shurahbil bin Hasanahra against the rebellious apostates. Hazrat Abu Bakrra sent Hazrat Ikrimahra towards Musailimah in Yamamah and also sent Hazrat Shurahbilra towards Yamamah as well. A brief introduction of Hazrat Shurahbilra bin Hasanah is that his father’s name was Abdullah bin Muta’ and his mother’s name was Hasanah. Some people refer to him as “Kindi” and also as “Tamimi”. Shurahbil’sra father passed away during his childhood and he was known by his mother’s name, hence his name was Shurahbil bin Hasanah. Hazrat Shurahbilra was among the early converts to Islam. He, along with his brothers, migrated towards Abyssinia and upon returning from Abyssinia, he stayed in the houses belonging to the Banu Zuraiq. During the era of Khilafat-e-Rashidah, he was among the well-known commanders of the army. He passed away in 18 AH at the age of 67 during the outbreak of the Amwas plague. (Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghabah fi Ma‘rifat al-Sahabah, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2008], pp. 619-620)
Nonetheless, as has been mentioned previously, despite Hazrat Abu Bakr’sra instructions not to attack until the arrival of Hazrat Shurahbil, Ikrimahra acted in haste and launched an attack against Musailimah, so that the recognition of this victory would be attributed to him. However, Musailmiah’s forces repelled his attack. When Hazrat Ikrimahra informed Hazrat Abu Bakrra of this setback, then as mentioned previously, Hazrat Abu Bakrra sent him a letter admonishing him that he should not return to Medina with this blemish of defeat, as it would bring down the morale of the people and dampen the spirits of everyone. Hazrat Abu Bakrra ordered him to go towards Oman. Hazrat Shurahbilra bin Hasanah was still en route when he learnt of Hazrat Ikrimah’sra defeat. He stopped his advance and sent a message to Hazrat Abu Bakrra asking him for new instructions. Hazrat Abu Bakrra instructed him to remain where he was. (Khurshid Ahmad Fariq, Hazrat Abu Bakrra ke Sarkari Khutut [Kitab Maila, Javaid Butt Press], p. 43)
He wrote to him saying, “Remain stationed close to Yamamah until you receive my second command. At present, do not confront the one you have been sent to attack (i.e. Musailimah).” (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], p. 291)
Then, when Hazrat Abu Bakrra assigned Hazrat Khalidra bin Walid to head towards Yamamah, he also ordered Hazrat Shurahbilra bin Hasanah to wait for Hazrat Khalidra bin Walid to join him. Then when they successfully finish their campaign in Yamamah, they ought to head towards the Quda‘ah tribe and along with Hazrat Amrra bin Al-Aas they should deal with the rebels among the Quda‘ah tribe who not only turned away from Islam, but actively opposed it. (Khurshid Ahmad Fariq, Hazrat Abu Bakrra ke Sarkari Khutut [Kitab Maila, Javaid Butt Press], p. 24)
Quda‘ah was a famous Arab tribe which lived at a distance of 10 manzils [one manzil would be equivalent to one day’s journey] from Medina, to the west of Mada’in Salih, further on from Wadi al-Qura. (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 237)
Nonetheless, in accordance with Hazrat Abu Bakr’sra instructions, Hazrat Shurahbilra remained in his position along with his army. However, Musailimah attacked him with his army.
Whilst mentioning this, an author writes that Hazrat Khalidra was still making his way towards Yamamah when Musailimah’s army launched an attack on Hazrat Shurahbil’sra army and pushed them back. Some historians have written that Hazrat Shurahbilra made the same mistake as his predecessor Hazrat Ikrimahra did, i.e. that he attacked Musailimah’s army with the hope of claiming victory to his name, but he too was defeated and had to retreat. However, this does not seem to be correct. In fact, fearing the impact of Hazrat Khalidra joining forces with Hazrat Shurahbilra, the army of Musailimah marched ahead and defeated Hazrat Shurahbil’sra army. In turn, they succeeded in pushing them back. Either of the two scenarios are plausible; but the fact remains that Hazrat Shurahbilra retreated with his army. When he reached Hazrat Khalidra bin Walid and he was informed about all the events, Hazrat Khalidra rebuked Hazrat Shurahbilra. Hazrat Khalidra was of the opinion that if the army does not have the strength to face an enemy, then they should refrain from engaging in battle, until the required reinforcements arrive, as opposed to engaging with the enemy with an understrength army and having to face defeat. Nonetheless, Hazrat Shurahbilra then joined forces with Hazrat Khalid bin Walidra. (Muhammad Husain Haikal, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra – Translated by Sheikh Muhammad Ahmad Pani Piti [Lahore: Shirkat Printing press], p. 190)
Hazrat Khalidra bin Walid appointed Hazrat Shurahbilra as the commander of the vanguard, i.e. the front part of the army, and appointed Hazrat Zaidra bin Khattab and Abu Huzayfa bin Utbah bin Rabi‘ah as commanders of the right and left flank respectively. (Muhammad al-Salabi, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiqra Shakhsiyyat aur Karname [Muzaffar Garh, Pakistan: Maktabah al-Furqan], p. 355)
In accordance with the instructions of Hazrat Abu Bakrra, after finishing the campaign in Yamamah, Hazrat Shurahbilra went to deal with the rebels of the Banu Quda‘ah tribe and joined Hazrat Amrra bin Al-Aas. It is written that Hazrat Shurahbilra and Hazrat Amrra bin Al-Aas attacked the rebels of Banu Quda‘ah. Hazrat Amrra bin Al-Aas attacked the Saad and Balq tribes and Hazrat Shurahbilra attacked the Kalb tribe and those tribes under their authority. (Tarikh Ibn Khuldun, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2016], p. 440)
The sixth expedition was the expedition in which Hazrat Amrra bin Al-Aas was sent to confront the rebels. Hazrat Abu Bakrra handed a banner to Amrra bin Al-Aas and ordered him to deal with three tribes: Quda‘ah, Wadi‘ah and Harith. (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], p. 257)
Quda‘ah was a famous Arab tribe which lived at a distance of 10 manzils from Medina, to the west of Mada’in Salih, further on from Wadi Al-Qura. (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 237)
A brief introduction to Hazrat Amrra bin Al-Aas is as follows:
His name was Amr and his appellation was Abdullah bin Abdillah or according to some it was Abu Muhammad. His father’s name was Aas bin Wa’il and his mother’s name was Nabighah bint Harmalah. According to one narration, his mother’s real name was Salma, and Nabighah was her title. Hazrat Amrra bin Al-Aas accepted Islam in 8 AH, six months prior to the conquest of Mecca.
The Holy Prophetsa appointed him as the governor of Oman and he remained in this post until the demise of the Holy Prophetsa. After this, he joined the conquest of the Levant. During the era of Hazrat Umarra, he served as the governor of Palestine. Among his notable achievements is the conquest of Egypt. After conquering Egypt, Hazrat Umarra appointed him as the governor of Egypt. During the Khilafat of Hazrat Uthmanra, he was removed from the governorship, after which he moved to Palestine and lived in seclusion. Amir Muawiyahra reappointed him as the governor of Egypt and he remained in this position until his demise. It is said that he passed away in 43 AH, whereas according to some he passed away in 47 AH, some state his demise as 48 AH and others say 51 AH. The narration in which it states that he passed away in 43 AH is commonly accepted to be correct. (Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghabah fi Ma‘rifat al-Sahabah, Vol. 4 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2016], pp. 232-234)
Hazrat Amrra bin Al-Aas was an eloquent and articulate orator. He was intelligent, expressive, distinguished in politics and a commander-in-chief of the army. The Holy Prophetsa trusted him in military expeditions. The Holy Prophetsa declared that the family of Amr bin Al-Aas, his son Abdullah and Umm Abdullah are among the best households. (Atlas Sirat Nabawisa, p. 386, Maktabah Dar al-Islam, 1424 AH)
An author writes that out of the 11 flags that Hazrat Abu Bakrra ordered to be prepared, one of them was for Amrra bin Al-Aas. Hazrat Abu Bakrra assigned him the task to fight against the rebels of the Quda‘ah tribe, because even during the lifetime of the Holy Prophetsa, he had already fought against the Quda‘ah tribe in the Battle of Dhat al-Salasil; he was aware of the conditions of the tribe as well as all the routes around them. (Muhammad Faraj Misri, Fatih A‘zam Hazrat Amrra bin al-Aas – Translated [Karachi, Pakistan: Nafees Academy, p. 109)
In Dhu Al-Hijjah, 8 AH, the Holy Prophetsa sent Hazrat Amrra bin Al-Aas for the purpose of tabligh along with a letter to Jaifar and Abbad bin Julundi, who were two chiefs in Oman. This deputation proved to be very successful and the people of Oman accepted Islam through Hazrat Amrra bin Al-Aas. Expressing his delight owing to this success, the Holy Prophetsa appointed Hazrat Amrra bin Al-Aas the task of collecting Zakat from Oman. He was in Oman when he received a letter from Hazrat Abu Bakrra informing him of the demise of the Holy Prophetsa. After the demise of the Holy Prophetsa, the majority of the Arab tribes became apostates. In order to suppress this [rebellion], Hazrat Abu Bakrra called Hazrat Amrra bin Al-Aas from Oman, and so according to these instructions, Hazrat Amrra returned to Medina from Oman. (Dr Ibrahim Hasan, Sirat Hazrat Amrra bin al-Aas – Urdu Translation by Sheikh Muhammad Ahmad Pani Pati [Lahore, Pakistan: Maktabah Jadid], p. 49)
In order to crush the wave of apostasy and rebellion, Hazrat Abu Bakrra appointed 11 commanders. It was at this point that Hazrat Abu Bakrra ordered Hazrat Shurahbilra bin Hasanah that when he successfully completes the expedition in Yamamah, he ought to head towards the Quda‘ah tribe and alongside Hazrat Amrra bin Al-Aas, he ought to defeat those rebels who had left Islam and were actively planning against it. (Khurshid Ahmad Fariq, Hazrat Abu Bakrra ke Sarkari Khutut [Kitab Maila, Javaid Butt Press], p. 43)
Hence, both Hazrat Shurahbilra and Hazrat Amrra launched an attack on the rebels of the Banu Quda‘ah and began their campaign against them. Details regarding this are mentioned by one author as follows:
“The Banu Quda‘ah did not enter Islam joyfully; rather, just like some other tribes, they accepted Islam either out of fear or in the hope of attaining wealth and prestige, whereas their hearts were devoid of the love of Islam. Therefore, after the demise of the Holy Prophetsa, the minute they sensed a weakness among the Muslims, they refused to pay the Zakat. As soon as he received instructions from the Khalifa of the time, Amrra bin Al-Aas immediately left with his army for Juzam along the route he took previously. When he arrived there, he saw that the Banu Quda‘ah were fully prepared for war. A fierce battle ensued and just as they suffered defeat in the past, the Banu Quda‘ah faced defeat again. Hazrat Amrra bin Al-Aas succeeded in bringing them back into the fold of Islam, and he brought the Zakat that he had taken from them to Medina.” (Muhammad Faraj Misri, Fatih A‘zam Hazrat Amrra bin al-Aas – Translated [Karachi, Pakistan: Nafees Academy, p. 109)
Insha-Allah, the remaining expeditions will be mentioned in the future.
(Official Urdu transcript published in Al Fazl International, 8 July 2022, pp. 5-9. Translated by The Review of Religions.)