20 May 2022
Men of Excellence: Hazrat Abu Bakrra
After reciting the tashahhud, ta‘awuz and Surah al-Fatihah, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih Vaa said:
Accounts from the Battle of Yamama during the era of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra were previously being narrated. In the details relating to the Battle of Yamama, it is stated that Yamama was originally a well-known city in Yemen. Nowadays, this area is located in Saudi Arabia. (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 321) (Urdu Da’irah Ma‘arif Islamiyyah, Vol. 23, p. 311, Zair Ihtimam Danish Gah, Lahore, 2002)
Yamama was an extremely lush and fertile area. In relation to Yamama, it is written that Yamama was one of the most beautiful cities; it was prosperous and that trees and dates could be found there in abundance. (Yaqut Ibn Abd Allah al-Hamawi, Mu‘jam al-Buldan, Vol. 5, Zair Lafz Yamama [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah], p. 506)
Yamama was the home of Banu Hanifah, who was a tribe skilled in warfare.
In the commentary of the verse:
سَتُدۡعَوۡنَ إِلَىٰ قَوۡمٍ أُوْلِي بَأۡسٍ شَدِيدٍ تُقَاتِلُوْنَهُمۡ أَوۡ يُسۡلِمُوْنَ
“You shall be called to fight against a people of mighty valour; you shall fight them until they surrender” (Ch.48: V.17), the following has been written in Tafsir al-Qurtubi:
“Hasan states, ‘A people of mighty valour refers to Persia and Rome.’ Ibn Jubair says, ‘This refers to the tribes of Hawazin and Thaqeef.’ Zuhri and Muqatil say, ‘This refers to Banu Hanifah, who resided in Yamama and were comrades of Musailimah.’ Rafi‘ bin Khateej says, ‘We used to recite this verse, but were unaware of who these people of “mighty valour” were until Hazrat Abu Bakrra called us to fight the Banu Hanifah, it was then that we realised that it was referring to this tribe.’” (Allamah al-Qurtubi, Tafsir al-Jami‘ li Ahkam al-Qur’an, pp. 2850-2851, Zair Ayah Surah al-Fath, Dar Ibn Hazm)
When the Holy Prophetsa wrote letters to various kings to propagate the message of Islam in the beginning of 7 AH, or 6 AH according to some narrations, one such letter was addressed to the king of Yamama, Hauzah bin Ali, and the people of Yamama. In this letter, an invitation was extended to the king and the people of Yamama to embrace Islam. When various delegations came to Medina in 9 AH, a delegation of the Banu Hanifah from Yamama was also present. Muja‘a bin Marara was part of this delegation, whom the Holy Prophetsa granted an uninhabited land as property in accordance with his request. Rajjal bin Unfuwah was also a part of this delegation as well as Musailimah Kazzab Thumamah bin Kabir bin Habib. According to Ibn Hisham, his name was Musailimah bin Thumamah and his appellation was Abu Thumamah. This delegation of Banu Hanifah stayed in Medina at the house of Ramlah bint Harith, a woman from the Ansar. (Imam Abu al-Hasan Ahmad bin Yahya al-Buladhari, Futuh al-Buldan [Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2000], p. 59) (Ibn Hisham, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Qudum Wafad Bani Hanifah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2001], p. 852)
When delegations continuously came in order to pledge allegiance at the hands of the Holy Prophetsa, he assigned a house where these delegations could stay. This house belonged to Ramlah bint Harith, who was a woman from the Banu Najjar. This was a very large house. (Jawad Ali, Al-Mufassil fi Tarikh al-Arab Qabl al-Islam, Vol. 5, p. 258, Maktabah Jarir, 2006)
When these people from the Banu Hanifah went to see the Holy Prophetsa, they did not take Musailimah along with them, but left him behind in order to guard their belongings. When they had accepted Islam, they mentioned Musailimah to the Holy Prophetsa and said, “O Messengersa of Allah! We left one of our companions behind to guard our belongings and carriages.” Subsequently, the Holy Prophetsa instructed to give Musailimah the same amount of presents as the others were to be given. Furthermore, the Holy Prophetsa said, “His rank is not inferior to yours as he is guarding the belongings of his companions.” Following this, the delegation departed from the Holy Prophetsa and they took with them what the Holy Prophetsa had given for Musailimah. (Ibn Hisham, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Qudum Wafad Bani Hanifah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2001], p. 852)
It is clear from this narration that all of the individuals from the delegation of the Banu Hanifah, aside from Musailimah, met with the Holy Prophetsa. However, there are also other narrations which mention that Musailimah met the Holy Prophetsa. In general, the narrations indicate that Musailimah did meet the Holy Prophetsa. It is also stated that perhaps he met him on the second visit.
In any case, further details are recorded in other narrations which show that when this delegation came to the Holy Prophetsa, Musailimah was also present. It is said that his people brought Musailimah to the Holy Prophetsa and he was wrapped in clothes. The Holy Prophetsa was holding a branch of a date-palm as he was sitting with the companions. Musailimah spoke to him and made some demands. The Holy Prophetsa responded, “If you were to ask for this date-palm branch in my hand, I would not even grant this to you.” (Mustafa Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-Ibad, Chapter 39, fi Qufud Bani Hanifah, Vol 6 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1993], p. 326)
The narrations of Sahih al-Bukhari regarding this indicate that Musailimah did not go to meet the Holy Prophetsa; rather, the Holy Prophetsa went to meet Musailimah. Abdullah bin Abdillah bin Utbah relates, “We received news that Musailimah Kazzab had come to Medina and gone to the house of Harith’s daughter. The daughter of Harith bin Quraiz was his wife, and the mother of Abdullah bin Aamir. The Holy Prophetsa went to see him [Musailimah]; the Holy Prophetsa was with Hazrat Thabitra bin Qais bin Shammas, who was known as the khatib [orator] of the Prophet. The Holy Prophetsa was carrying a stick in his hand. He stood next to Musailimah and spoke to him. Musailimah said to him, ‘If you wish, we will not interfere between you and this matter.’ He continued ‘You should assign it to us after your demise.’”
In other words, it be decided regarding the matter of prophethood, and it be granted to him after the Holy Prophetsa. This was his main demand.
“The Holy Prophetsa replied, ‘If you ask for this stick, I would not even give this to you, and I believe you are the same person who was shown to me in a dream. This is Thabit bin Qais who will answer you on my behalf.’ The Holy Prophetsa then left.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Maghazi, Bab Qissat al-Aswad al-Ansi, Hadith 4378)
Similarly, in one narration Hazrat Ibn Abbasra relates, “Musailimah Kazzab came in the time of the Holy Prophetsa and said, ‘If Muhammad[sa] makes me his successor, I will follow him.’” This clarifies the first narration that he went there along with many of his tribesmen. “The Holy Prophetsa went to him, and with him was Hazrat Thabitra bin Qais bin Shammas. The Holy Prophetsa was carrying a date-palm stick in his hand and stood before Musailimah who was with his companions. The Holy Prophetsa said, ‘If you asked me for even this piece of stick, I would not give it to you. You cannot avoid the fate you are destined to by Allah. If you turn away, Allah will destroy you. I think that you are the same person whom I have seen much about in my dream. And this is Thabit (i.e. Thabit bin Qais), who shall answer you on my behalf.’ The Holy Prophetsa then left him and returned.” This is a narration of Sahih al-Bukhari. (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Maghazi, Bab Wafd Bani Hanifah wa Hadith Thumamah ibn Ithal, Hadith 4373)
Hazrat Ibn Abbasra narrates:
“I enquired regarding what the Holy Prophetsa had stated about the person who was shown to him in a dream. Upon this, Hazrat Abu Hurairahra said to me that the Holy Prophetsa stated, ‘Once I was sleeping, and in my sleep, I saw two gold bangles in my hand. Their condition caused me to become concerned.” This was in a dream. “During the dream, I received a revelation in which I was told to blow over them. And so, when I blew over them, they flew away. I interpreted this to be two liars who would appear after me.’”
The narrator Ubaidullah stated that one of them was Ansi, who was killed by Fayruz in Yemen, and the other was Musailimah Kazzab. This is also a narration from Bukhari. (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Maghazi, Bab Wafd Bani Hanifah wa Hadith Thumamah ibn Ithal, Hadith 4374) (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Maghazi, Bab Qissat al-Aswad al-Ansi, Hadith 4379)
Nonetheless, according to the aforementioned narrations, it seems that Musailimah came to Medina on more than one occasion. One occasion was when his caravan had left him behind to safeguard their belongings. At that time, he was unable to meet with the Holy Prophetsa. The second occasion was when he had come to meet the Holy Prophetsa and demanded that he be made a successor after the Holy Prophetsa. In reference to this, in Fath al-Bari, a commentary of Sahih al-Bukhari, it is recorded that it is quite possible that Musailimah came to Medina on two occasions. The first occasion was at a time when the chieftain of Banu Hanifah was someone other than him. In other words, he was not the chief of the tribe at the time. The chieftain was someone else and he was subservient to him. For that reason, he was left behind to tend to their belongings. The second occasion was when he himself had gained followers and on that very occasion, he spoke with the Holy Prophetsa. On the other hand, it is possible that it may have only been one occasion, and out of his pride and arrogance, he decided to stay back with his belongings rather than have an audience with the Holy Prophetsa. However, because of his spirit of friendship, the Holy Prophetsa treated him with respect. Furthermore, it is recorded in a hadith that he came with a large convoy, which is recorded to have consisted of 70 people. This is also evidence for the fact that Musailimah came to Medina on more than one occasion.” (Ibn Hajr ‘Asqalani, Fath al-Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 8 [Karachi: Qadimi Kutub Khana Maqabil Aram Bagh], 112, Hadith 4373)
Nonetheless, when this convoy returned to Yamama, the enemy of Allah the Almighty – Musailimah – became an apostate, claimed to be a prophet and said, “I have been given a share from the prophethood of the Holy Prophetsa. When you [people] mentioned me to the Prophetsa of Allah, did he not say that I am not inferior to you in rank and stature? The Holy Prophetsa only said this because he was aware of his prophethood and that I have been given a share in his mission.”
Following this, Musailimah began to fabricate revelations for the people in an attempt to copy the Holy Quran, and he exempted them from prayer. He introduced his own Shariah and gave exemption from prayer. According to one narration, he gave exemption for two prayers – namely Fajr and Isha – and deemed the consumption of alcohol and fornication permissible for the people. Alongside this, he would also testify that the Holy Prophetsa was a prophet. The Banu Hanifah accepted these terms. (Mustafa Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-Ibad, Chapter 39, fi Qufud Bani Hanifah, Vol 6 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1993], p. 326) (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1987], p. 271)
Another factor that further strengthened Musailimah’s position was his alliance with Rajjal bin Unfuwah. He very strategically claimed that firstly, the Shariah has given such and such exemptions so as to provide ease, and that Allah the Almighty reveals to him, and simultaneously he accepted that the Holy Prophetsa was a prophet, so that those who were new converts would not feel that he was distancing them from the Holy Prophetsa. He did all this in a very hypocritical manner.
Nonetheless, it is recorded that another factor which increased Musailimah’s strength was his alliance with Rajjal bin Unfuwah. This man was also a resident of Yamama and accompanied the convoy that came from Banu Hanifah. [Originally] he migrated to Medina and came to the Holy Prophetsa, where he learned the Holy Quran and attained religious knowledge. When Musailimah became an apostate, the Holy Prophetsa sent Rajjal bin Unfuwah to Yamama as a teacher to prevent the people from following Musailimah; however, he proved to be a greater cause of spreading disorder than Musailimah himself. When he saw that many people were accepting Musailimah, he too joined them in order to elevate himself in their sights. He was sent there to reform the people and stop the strife, but instead, he joined Musailimah’s ranks and wrongfully attested to his prophethood. Not only this, but he also falsely attributed a message which he claimed was sent by the Holy Prophetsa, saying that Musailimah was given a share in the prophethood of the Holy Prophetsa. He spread this far and wide. Because he had been known to have learnt the Holy Quran, the people believed him. When the people of Yamama saw that such a person was attesting to the prophethood of Musailimah who is from among the companions of the Holy Prophetsa and who taught the Holy Quran to others, they were left with no reason to reject Musailimah’s prophethood and came to him in flocks to pledge allegiance to him. (Muhammad Husain Haikal, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra [translated], pp. 187-188) (Tarikh Ibn Khuldun, Vol. 2, Khabr Musailimah wa al-Yamama [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2016], pp. 437-438)
Musailimah also wrote a letter to the Holy Prophetsa, the text of which reads as follows:
“From Musailimah, the prophet of Allah, to Muhammad, the Prophet of Allah. Half of all land belongs to me, and the other half to the Quraish. However, the Quraish do not act with justice.”
Following this, the Holy Prophetsa wrote a letter to him in response, saying:
“In the name of Allah, the Gracious the Merciful. From Muhammadsa, the Prophet of Allah, addressed to Musailimah, the great liar. Surely, all the land belongs only to Allah and He grants it to whomever He pleases among His servants. Reward and recompense are granted only to those who are righteous. Peace be on those who follow guidance.” (Imam Abu al-Hasan Ahmad bin Yahya al-Buladhari, Futuh al-Buldan [Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2000], pp. 59-60)
In one narration, it is recorded that Hazrat Habib bin Zaid Ansarira was the one who delivered the letter of the Holy Prophetsa to Musailimah. When he delivered this letter to Musailimah, Musailimah asked him, “Do you bear witness that Muhammadsa is the Prophet of Allah?” He replied in the affirmative. Then Musailimah asked him, “Do you bear witness that I am the prophet of Allah?” He replied, “I am deaf and cannot hear.” He averted the subject. Musailimah continued to repeat this question over and over, and every time, Hazrat Habibra would give the same answer. Musailimah wanted him to admit that he, too, was a prophet. When he did not get the answer he was looking for, he would sever a part of his body. He was torturing him in order to force him to answer in the affirmative, and continued to cut off parts of his body. Hazrat Habibra demonstrated exceptional patience and steadfastness until he was cut into pieces. In defiance of him, Hazrat Habibra attained the rank of martyrdom. (Muhammad al-Salabi, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiqra Shakhsiyyat aur Karname, p. 349)
Musailimah raised the flags of revolt in Yamama. This was not merely a claim to prophethood; rather, it was brutality – the way he treated those who did not accept him as a prophet. Musailimah raised the flags of revolt in Yamama and banished the governor appointed by the Holy Prophetsa, Hazrat Thumamah bin Uthalra, from Yamama. (Muhammad Husain Haikal, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra [translated by Shaikh Muhammad Ahmad Pani Piti], p. 101, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2009) (Tarikh al-Khamis, Vol. 3, p. 81, Qissah Sajah, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2009)
When the Holy Prophetsa passed away, Hazrat Abu Bakrra sent various military expeditions towards the apostates. Among them was an army that was sent towards Musailimah under the command of Hazrat Ikrimahra and he also sent Hazrat Shurahbil bin Hasanahra as reinforcement. Hazrat Abu Bakrra instructed Hazrat Ikrimahra that he should not engage in battle against Musailimah until Hazrat Shurahbilra had arrived. However, Hazrat Ikrimahra acted rather hastily and launched an attack against the people of Yamama prior to the arrival of Hazrat Shurahbilra so that he could be hailed as the sole victor. However, he fell into difficulty and had to face defeat as the army of Musailimah was far greater in number.
When Hazrat Shurahbilra learnt of this, he stopped whilst en route. Following this, Hazrat Ikrimahra wrote to Hazrat Abu Bakrra in order to inform him about the incident; however, Hazrat Abu Bakrra wrote to Hazrat Ikrimahra and told him that he did not want to see him, nor should he come to see him for he had disobeyed an instruction. He further stated that he should not return lest people lost courage and instead he should go to Hazrat Huzayfara and Arfijah and he should join forces with them and fight against the people of Oman and Mahrah. Mahrah is an area located in the south of the Arabian Peninsula, to the eastern coast, bordering the Indian Ocean. He was instructed that he should go to Yemen and Hadramaut along with his army and join forces with the Muslim army. Hadramaut is also a region that is situated in western Yemen and has the coast situated to its south.
According to another narration, the letter written by Hazrat Abu Bakrra read as follows:
“You do not possess the expertise of a master but at the same time you are reluctant to learn.” In other words, he did not possess the knowledge of warfare, nor was he skilled as he ought to be and yet he was reluctant to learn. “You will see how I treat you when you come before me. Why did you not wait for Shurahbil and fight with his help and cooperation? Now, go towards Huzayfa and provide them help. You have disobeyed the instruction of the Khalifa of the time. You consider yourself to be a master and do not wish to learn. Thus, you must not come to me. When you meet me, I will decide how I will deal with you, but for now go to Huzayfa and provide him with help with the expedition they have been sent on. If they do not require your help, then go to Yemen and Hadramaut and help Muhajir bin Umaiyyah.”
Hazrat Abu Bakrra had sent Muhajir bin Umaiyyah towards the Qindah tribe in Hadramaut. (Sirah Khalifah al-Rasulsa Sayyidina Abi Bakr Siddiqra, Talib al-Hashmi, p. 204) (Urdu Da’irah Ma‘arif Islamiyyah, Vol. 21, p. 898, Zair Lafz Muhrah) (Urdu Da’irah Ma‘arif Islamiyyah, Vol. 8, p. 408, Zair Lafz Hadramaut) (Hazrat Abu Bakrra ke Sar Kari Khutut, p. 24, 1960) (Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2, p. 257) (Ibn Athir, Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh, Vol. 2, pp. 218-219, Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2006)
Hazrat Abu Bakrra told Hazrat Shurahbilra to remain there until he received further instructions. Then, prior to sending Khalidra bin Walid to Yamama, Hazrat Abu Bakrra wrote to Shurahbilra and stated that after Khalidra had reached him and they had finished their task of providing help in Yamama, he should head towards Quza‘ah and then join forces with Hazrat Amr bin Al-Aasra and see to the rebels in Quza‘ah who had rejected Islam and were opposing it. (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1987], p. 275)
It was not just mere rejection, but they were also opposing it. Just like Hazrat Ikrimahra, Hazrat Shurahbilra also acted in haste and started to fight against Musailimah before Hazrat Khalidra had reached, contrary to the instructions of Hazrat Abu Bakrra. He also faced defeat upon which Hazrat Khalidra expressed his displeasure towards him. Hazrat Abu Bakrra then sent an army under the command of Hazrat Salitra as further reinforcement for Hazrat Khalidra in order to provide defence for the rear of the army. (Ibn Athir, Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh, Vol. 2, p. 219, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2006)
Hazrat Abu Bakrra sent Hazrat Khalidra towards Musailimah and also sent an army consisting of Muhajirin and Ansar in order to provide him with further help. Hazrat Abu Bakrra appointed Hazrat Thabitra bin Qais as the leader for the Ansar and Hazrat Abu Huzayfara and Zaidra bin Khattab as the leader of the Muhajirin. Furthermore, he appointed an in-charge for each tribe.
Hazrat Khalidra was waiting for the arrival of this army in Butah. Butah is a region in the area belonging to Bani Tamim.
In any case, when they all reached where Hazrat Khalidra was, they all departed towards Yamama. The Banu Hanifah that day were in great numbers and their total number of soldiers was 40,000. These 40,000 people were from Yamama and had joined forces with Musailimah. And according to another narration, they numbered 100,000 or even more. On the other hand, the Muslims were only over 10,000. (Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, Vol. 3, Ch. 6 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah] p. 267) (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 58)
Prior to the main battle commencing, the Muslims were able to capture one of the leaders of the Banu Hanifah. It has been mentioned in a narration that Muja‘ah bin Mararah was one of the leaders of the Banu Hanifah and he left along with a group of soldiers but he and his men were captured by the Muslims. Hazrat Khalidra killed his men and kept Muja‘ah alive because he was afforded great respect by the Banu Hanifah. (Ibn Athir, Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh, Vol. 2, pp. 219-220, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2006) (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], p. 278)
Further details regarding this are as follows:
When Hazrat Khalidra arrived in an area called Arid, he sent 200 horsemen ahead and instructed them that they should capture whoever they find. These horsemen left and captured Muja‘ah bin Mararah Hanafi, along with 23 of his fellow tribesmen, who had left in search of a person from the Banu Numair. They had come out not knowing that Hazrat Khalidra had arrived. The Muslims enquired who they were and they replied that they were from the Banu Hanifah. The Muslims thought that these were envoys of Musalyimah sent towards Hazrat Khalidra, and so the next morning when they came before one another, the Muslims took them to Hazrat Khalidra. When Hazrat Khalidra saw them, he also thought that they were with Musailimah and so he asked, “O Banu Hanifah, what do you have to say regarding your leader, Musailimah?” They bore testimony that he was the messenger of Allah. Upon this, Hazrat Khalidra asked Muja‘ah as to what he had to say and he replied, “By God, I only left to go in search of a person belonging to the Banu Numair tribe, who had killed someone from our tribe and I am not from among the close associates of Musailimah.”
Perhaps this was the reason, or he denied this owing to fear. [He further stated,] “I presented myself before the Messengersa of Allah and I accepted Islam and I am still of the same belief.”
The rest of the people were brought and Hazrat Khalidra had them killed. Only Sariyah bin Musailimah bin Aamir was left and at the time, he said, “O Khalid! If you wish for any goodness or evil for the people of Yamama, then keep Muja‘ah alive because he will be able to help you in both the state of war and peace.”
Muja‘ah was a leader, therefore Hazrat Khalidra did not kill him. Hazrat Khalidra liked what Sariya had said and so he kept him alive as well. Hazrat Khalidra instructed regarding them both that they should be shackled with metal chains. Whenever he would call for Muja‘ah, he would appear whilst shackled and he would converse with him in this very state. Muja‘ah thought that Hazrat Khalidra would have him killed and so whilst in a conversation with him, he said, “O Ibn Mughirah!” This was Hazrat Khalid’sra title. “I am a Muslim. By Allah, I have not rejected the faith and I had appeared before the Holy Prophetsa and accepted Islam and I did not set out for war.” He then mentioned about searching for a member of the Numair tribe. Hazrat Khalidra replied that “there is very little distance left between deciding whether to kill you or to imprison you for Allah the Almighty shall reveal His verdict regarding the battle between us.” Thereafter, Hazrat Khalidra placed him under the supervision of his wife, whom he had married after Malik bin Nuwairah had been killed. He instructed his wife to take good care of him. Muja‘ah thought that perhaps Khalidra wanted to keep him as a prisoner so that he could disclose information about the enemy. And so, he stated, “Are you aware that I appeared before the Holy Prophetsa and accepted Islam.” He would continue to repeat this “and thereafter I returned to my people and even today I am still in the same state [of belief].”
However, the events that unfolded later revealed that these were all lies, that is, he was in the same state [of belief] as he was in the past. (Al-Iktifa bima Tadmanuhu min Maghazi Rasul Allah wa al-Thalathah al-Khulafa, Vol. 2, p. 119, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1420 AH)
After dealing with the people who were along with Muja‘ah, Hazrat Khalidra left for Yamama. Upon hearing of the arrival [of Hazrat Khalidra], Musailimah left for battle along with the people of Banu Hanifah and settled in Aqraba. This was a place on the outskirts of Yamama, situated near the green pastures and fields of Yamama. Khalidra formulated a strong strategy. He would never consider the army to be weak and he would always prepare his utmost and take every caution on the battlefield, lest the enemy launch a sudden attack or conspire against them. Among the qualities mentioned about him is that he would never sleep himself and would tell others to go to sleep. He would spend the night in full preparation for battle and no information about the enemy would remain hidden from him. The time had now come to organise the army [on the battlefield]. The flag-bearer in this battle was Hazrat Abdullah bin Hafas bin Ghanim. The flag was then assigned to Hazrat Salimra, the freed slave of Abu Huzayfara. During this battle, Hazrat Khalidra sent Hazrat Shurahbilra ahead of the army and divided the Muslim army into five contingents. He appointed Hazrat Khalid Makhzumira to be at the front, Hazrat Abu Huzaifahra over the right flank, Hazrat Shuja‘ahra over the left flank, Hazrat Zaid bin Khattabra in the middle and Usamah bin Zaidra was appointed commander over the cavalry. The camels were kept at the rear of the army which were laden with their tents and where the women were situated. This was the final formation before the battle commenced. (Muhammad al-Salabi, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiqra Shakhsiyyat aur Karname , p. 357, 358)
On the opposite end, the army of Musailimah was also ready for battle. Musailimah’s son, Shurahbil said to his tribe, “O Banu Hanifah! Today is the day to display your honour. If you suffer defeat today, then your women will be taken as slaves and they will be taken advantage of without the marriage ceremony. Thus, show all your valour for the sake of safeguarding your honour and respect and protect your women.” (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2, Dhikr Baqiyyat Khabr Musailimah al-Kazzab wa Qaumihi min Ahl al-Yamama [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], p. 278)
Nonetheless, a fierce battle took place. The battle was so ferocious that the Muslims had never faced such an intense battle. The Muslims retreated – here they were forced to retreat as well. The people of the Banu Hanifah came to rescue Muja‘ah and headed towards the tent of Hazrat Khalidra. Hazrat Khalidra had set out from his tent and so they were able to reach Muja‘ah, who was under the supervision of Hazrat Khalid’sra wife. The apostates wanted to kill Hazrat Khalid’sra wife; however, Muja‘ah stopped them and said he gave her refuge. For this reason, they left her. Muja‘ah told them to attack the men. On the one hand, he claimed that he was a Muslim, but on the other hand, he told the enemies to attack the [Muslim] men and they then ripped open the tent. (Ibn Athir, Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh, Dhkir Musailimah wa Ahl al-Yamama, Vol. 2, p. 221, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003)
Despite the Muslim army retreating, the determination, resolve, bravery and perseverance of Hazrat Khalidra bin Walid did not waver in the slightest. It did not cross his mind even for a second that he may face defeat. Hazrat Khalidra instructed his army, “O Muslims! Spread out”, i.e. each tribe should fight separately and fight in this way against the enemy so that everyone can see which tribe showed the most bravery in the battle. This announcement implied that the Muslims were to fight under the banner of their respective tribes. This instilled a new spirit amongst each and every tribe; through this, it developed within them a sense of excelling one another and proving their bravery. (Muhammad Husain Haikal, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra [translated], pp. 195-196)
The Muslims encouraged each other. Further details of this are that Hazrat Thabitra bin Qais said, “O Muslims! How dreadful is that which you made yourself used to”, i.e. if they have become used to comfort and ease then that is a bad thing. The companions raised each other’s spirits for the battle, and said, “O People of Surah al-Baqarah! Today the spell will be broken.”
Hazrat Thabitra bin Qais dug the ground, halfway up to his calf and buried himself inside it. He was carrying the flag of the Ansar and he rubbed “hanut” over himself. Among the Arabs there was a tradition that whoever wished to demonstrate their bravery, they would do this. It was to show that they were ready to do to themselves that which people would usually do to them after their death, i.e. they would bury themselves half in the ground to show that they were ready to die. Hanut was a mixture of fragrances which would be used to embalm corpses after they had been washed, this balm would protect the body from decay for a certain time. Nonetheless, in this narration it is mentioned that he made all preparations for burial – as it were – and then remained resolute in front of the enemy, until he attained martyrdom. (Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, Vol. 3, Ch. 6 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2001] p. 320) (Feroz al-Lughat Urdu, p. 609, Zair Lafz Hanut)
There are further details of these accounts which will be mentioned in the future, insha-Allah.
At present, I wish to mention some deceased members. The first is of a martyr, Abdus Salam Sahib, who was martyred recently; he was the son of Master Munawar Ahmad Sahib, Sadr Jamaat L-Plot, Okarah. He was martyred on 17 May at the age of 35. An opponent of Ahmadiyyat attacked him with a dagger and martyred him.
إِنَّا لِلّٰهِ وَإِنَّآ إِلَيۡهِ رَاجِعُونَ
[“Surely, to Allah we belong and to Him shall we return.”]
According to the reports, Abdus Salam Sahib left his home for an errand along with his two young children, Qamar Islam, aged six and Badr Islam aged four and a half; in fact, he was called outside to get the water connections of the house fixed; it seems as though this was part of the plan and the enemy attacked him from behind. Nonetheless, when he came out of his house, an opponent of Ahmadiyyat, Hafiz Ali Raza, also known as Mulazim Husain followed behind him and attacked him with a dagger. This took place in the evening. Owing to this attack, Abdus Salam Sahib was unable to recover from his injuries and died at the scene in front of his two young children.
In the initial attack from behind, it penetrated his kidney, after which the assailant attacked his intestine [region] and then stabbed him in the heart. Nonetheless, he was martyred in front of his children and the assailant ran away.
Such people wish to enter Paradise by killing Ahmadis. The killer was a student of the local Madrasa, Jamia Aminia Faridia, L-Plot of the district of Okarah. Two days prior to this, he graduated from the hifz course [memorising the Holy Quran] of this madrasa. In the passing out ceremony organised by the madrasa, a cleric said to the graduating class in his speech – the ceremony was for the hifz class – that they ought to take action against the Ahmadiyya Jamaat; he deliberately incited them and encouraged them to take drastic action. Nonetheless, the way in which they wish for people to attain Paradise, they are not only paving their own way to Hell, but are pushing others into Hell as well.
Ahmadiyyat was introduced into the family of the deceased martyr through his great paternal grandfather, Hazrat Nabi Baksh Sahibra, from Phambian of Hoshiarpur district, who was a companion of the Promised Messiahas. The deceased’s grandfather, Respected Muhammad Siddiq Sahib was an Ahmadi by birth. After the formation of Pakistan, they settled in Okarah. The deceased martyr completed his education up to secondary school and passed the matriculation examinations. After this, he began farming. He was part of the blessed Waqf-e-Nau scheme. His mother says that when she would say to him that he is a Waqf-e-Nau and two of his brothers had become missionaries but he did not, the deceased would reply, “I am helping them. Perhaps Allah will accept this service from me, which I am doing for the rest of the family.” This is because the entire family was supported by him through his farm work etc. He supported everyone financially. At the time, he was serving as qaid of Khuddam-ul-Ahmadiyya and by the grace of Allah, he was part of the Al-Wasiyyat scheme.
He was very sociable and loving. Whoever would meet him, they would form a close bond with him. Even the non-Ahmadis who knew him have said that this was a great injustice; however, nobody has the courage to speak up against the terrorist clerics. Decency and morals have become completely subdued in Pakistan. Nevertheless, the brothers and relatives of the deceased have written that he had unbound love for Khilafat. He would discreetly assist the poor irrespective if they were Ahmadi or non-Ahmadi. Hospitality of guests was one of his key traits, and he would especially look after the guests from the centre. All of his family members have written that he was known as a youth who was courageous and fearless. In the past, the deceased was targeted on two Eid days; however, at the time he was protected by Allah the Almighty, but now, this was what was decreed for him.
The deceased martyr is survived by his father, Respected Master Munawar Ahmad Sahib, President of the Jamaat in L-Plot, district of Okarah, his mother, Shamshad Kauthar Sahiba, as well as his wife, Farzana Irum and three young children; Qamar Islam, aged six years, Badr Islam, aged four and a half years, and a daughter Sehr, who is one year and six months. The deceased is also survived by four brothers; among whom, Zahoor Ilahi Touqir Sahib is a missionary serving in the Research Cell, and Hafiz Anwaar Ahmad Sahib is a missionary serving in Pakistan; from the remaining two brothers, one is in London and one is in Rabwah. He leaves behind three sisters, one of whom lives here in the UK and is the wife of Zeeshan Khalid Sahib from Manchester, one sister lives in Kuwait and the third sister also lives in London.
May Allah the Almighty elevate the rank of the martyr and grant him a lofty rank in the highest station in Paradise, may Allah the Almighty safeguard and help the innocent children, wife, parents and all relatives of the deceased.
He was martyred in front of his innocent children; what would be their condition and sentiments, only Allah knows best. It is said that the elder son, who is six years old and witnessed the incident is completely silent for now. It is only Allah that can grant them patience and comfort, may Allah safeguard the children Himself and may He punish the enemy for their ill deeds.
The second mention is of Zulfiqar Ahmad, son of Sheikh Saeedullah Sahib of Faisalabad who recently passed away at the age of 36 due to heart failure, in a hotel while visiting Azerbaijan.
إِنَّا لِلّٰهِ وَإِنَّآ إِلَيۡهِ رَاجِعُونَ
[“Surely, to Allah we belong and to Him shall we return.”]
Ahmadiyyat was established in his family through his great-paternal grandfather Hazrat Sheikh Rahmatullah Sahibra who was a companion of the Promised Messiahas and was the son of Hazrat Sheikh Janda Sahibra who was also a companion of the Promised Messiahas. Hazrat Sheikh Rahmatullahra had a convenience store near Masjid Mubarak [Qadian]. After accepting Ahmadiyyat, he moved to Qadian from his nearby village Tokal Wala.
Once someone complained to Hazrat Maulana Nuruddin Sahib, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih Ira saying that there should not be a shop so close to the mosque. Hazrat Maulvi Sahibra mentioned this to the Promised Messiahas, who said that these people were the Ashab-e-Suffah. (Ashab-e-Ahmad, Vol. 10, pp. 187-188)
Allah the Almighty then granted these Ashab-e-Suffah ease in every way and increased their progenies as well. In 2005, the deceased obtained a BSc honours degree in textiles from Manchester University, after which he looked after the family business.
Despite immense worldly success, his humility was exemplary. He had associations with people from all walks of life and he treated everyone with great respect and honour and dealt with them all as his friends and brothers. He took great care of his workers and treated them kindly. He would be at the forefront of giving alms and would also participate in giving donations to hospitals etc. He would offer donations for Jamaat chanda under every category; in fact, he himself would remind the finance secretary to collect his donations, and to inform him about the various schemes and collect donations for them. He participated a great deal in the various projects under Humanity First. He built homes for people and facilitated the marriage ceremonies of the poor. He would always try to learn something useful whenever he met people and try to implement those things in his life. He would especially render service to others during the month of Ramadan.
The deceased and his parents also had a mosque built in Belize which was a grand project and by the grace of Allah the Almighty, a very beautiful mosque has been built there. It has been written about him that he would stop whatever he was doing and take time out to offer prayers. He had also made reciting the Holy Quran a regular part of his life. He ensured the offering of prayer in congregation at home when restrictions were placed on going to the mosque. On one occasion, he had gone to visit Malaysia when police came to a Jamaat mosque and arrested Jamaat members and so he too had the honour of being a prisoner in the way of Allah for a short time. The deceased is survived by his wife, two children, his parents, five brothers and a sister. His mother Asifa Saeed Sahiba is the Sadr Lajna of District Faisalabad. May Allah the Almighty grant everyone patience.
Dr Hamid Mahmood Sahib writes about him:
“He had a special sense of attachment and love for Ahmadiyyat and Khilafat. He would use his social, political and administrative contacts to try and help people and considered it his duty to go above and beyond in serving those who needed help. He also considered it his duty to silently help anyone he saw was facing difficulty. He always tried to do these things discreetly and without making himself known.”
Dr Masood ul Hassan Noori Sahib says:
“Zulfiqar was a very pious, dignified and sincere young Ahmadi.” He says, “When I came to know him, I became well-aware of his abilities. He would be at the forefront of presenting financial sacrifices in the various schemes of Humanity First. His passion for sacrifice and generosity were of a very high level and he would offer hundreds of thousands of rupees at a time. At the same time, he was filled with humility.”
May Allah the Almighty grant him forgiveness and mercy and grant his parents and his wife patience and fortitude. May He protect his children and enable them to carry on his virtues.
The third mention is of respected Malik Tabassum Maqsood Sahib of Canada who recently passed away.
إِنَّا لِلّٰهِ وَإِنَّآ إِلَيۡهِ رَاجِعُونَ
[“Surely, to Allah we belong and to Him shall we return.”]
His father, Malik Maqsood Ahmad Sahib was martyred on 28 May 2010 in the attack on Dar-ul-Dhikr, Lahore. His father, Malik Maqsood Ahmad Shaheed’s maternal grandfather was Hazrat Malik Ali Bakhsh Sahibra of Bhopal, who was a companion of the Promised Messiahas and decided to pledge allegiance to him after hearing his lecture in Sialkot.
Malik Tabassum Maqsood Sahib dedicated his life [to the Jamaat] in 1991. In 2006, he was appointed to nazarat umur-e-ama where he served as naib nazir umur-e-ama. Then in 2011, he was appointed as the legal advisor in Tahrik-e-Jadid. Then in 2016, with my permission, he went to Canada along with the other families of martyrs. Initially he did not wish to go, but then agreed to go upon my advice. In Canada he served in the departments of umur-e-ama , jaidad and also as nazim dar-ul-qaza. He was regular in offering prayers and keeping fasts; he offered Tahajjud regularly, had a deep connection with the Holy Quran, was firmly attached to Khilafat and would hearken to the call of the Khalifa of the time. He was very pious and kind. He is survived by his mother, wife, a son and three daughters. His only son, Dr Athar Ahmad is a life-devotee and his son-in-law, Omar Farooq Sahib is a missionary. The deceased was also the nephew of Tahir Ahmad Sahib, Amir Jamaat District Lahore.
His daughter, Raziya Tabassum writes:
“He had a passion for tabligh; one night, he had gone out for tabligh when some boys attacked him. He managed to escape but during the scuffle he was struck in the eye causing an injury and he returned home with great difficulty. He did not tell anyone, and it was only years later when he started experiencing an issue with his eye that he showed the doctors who said that this was due to an old injury, at which time he mentioned the incident that had occurred. He was very pleased with the fact that his vision was weakened due to spreading the message of the Promised Messiahas.”
Malik Tahir Ahmad Sahib writes:
“Tabassum Maqsood was inclined towards virtues since his childhood. He served both in the auxiliary organisations as well as Jamaat administration. He was firmly attached to Khilafat and he always ensured to remain obedient to the system of the Jamaat. He was modest and put his trust in God. He raised his children in an excellent manner and strove to establish in them a firm connection with Khilafat and the system of the Jamaat.”
Hafiz Muhammad Akram Qureshi Sahib, Naib Wakil-ul-Mal II says:
“I have known him for a very long time and we were also neighbours. He was very sincere, loyal, kind, had a passion for serving humanity and was wholly devoted to Khilafat. He had firm faith in God Almighty. Once, he was explaining to someone about the recognition of God and I saw tears flowing from his eyes out of love for God and His Greatness.”
He further writes, “Once, someone who worked with him told me that he advised him saying, ‘My advice is, do not look towards what others do nor listen to anyone else; rather, protect your belief and never let go of the mantle of Khilafat for there is no peace anywhere else.’
“He was deeply attached to the Jamaat from his time in Khuddam-ul-Ahmadiyya and was ever ready to sacrifice his life, wealth, time and honour. He was an active, healthy and fit young man. He was strongly-built, tall and was a sportsman. He would use all of his abilities to help serve the Jamaat. He also obtained his license to practice [law] in the Supreme Court at an early age. He had extraordinary skills and experience in various fields and he had also travelled the world.”
He always remained within his means and was humble and never showed conceit or arrogance.
May Allah the Almighty grant him forgiveness and mercy and enable his progeny to carry on his virtues.
(Official Urdu transcript published in Al Fazl International, 10 June 2022, pp. 5-10. Translated by The Review of Religions.)