24 June 2022
Men of Excellence: Hazrat Abu Bakrra
After reciting the tashahhud, ta‘awuz and Surah al-Fatihah, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih Vaa said:
Accounts relating to the expeditions that were sent against the rebels during the era of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra were being mentioned. According to the details with regard to the seventh expedition, it is stated that it was led by Hazrat Khalidra bin Saeed bin Aas, who was sent to confront the rebellious apostates. Hazrat Abu Bakrra tied the flag for Hazrat Khalidra bin Saeed bin Aas and sent him to Humqatain which was situated at the border of Syria. (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], p. 657)
An introduction of Hazrat Khalidra bin Saeed bin Aas is as follows: His name was Khalid and his title was Abu Saeed. His father’s name was Saeed bin Aas bin Umayyah and his mother’s name was Lubainah bint Habbab, who was known as Umm-e-Khalid. (Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghabah fi Ma‘rifat al-Sahabah, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2008], p. 124) (Hakim al-Nishapuri, Al-Mustadrak ‘ala al-Sahihain, Vol. 5, Hadith 5081 [Riyad: Nazar Mustafa al-Baz, 2000], p. 1896)
Hazrat Khalidra was among the early people to have accepted Islam. According to some, he accepted Islam after Hazrat Abu Bakrra and he was the third or fourth Muslim. According to others, he was the fifth person to accept Islam. Prior to him, only Hazrat Alira bin Abi Talib, Hazrat Abu Bakrra, Hazrat Zaidra bin Haritha and Hazrat Saadra bin Abi Waqas had accepted Islam.
The incident of Hazrat Khalid’sra acceptance of Islam is as follows: He saw in a dream that he was standing on the brink of a fire and that his father was trying to push him into it. He then saw that the Holy Prophetsa was holding him from his back, lest he fell in. Hazrat Khalidra woke up in a state of anxiousness and said, “By Allah! This is a true dream!”
Following this, he met with Hazrat Abu Bakrra and he related his dream to him. Hazrat Abu Bakrra said, “A good fortune has been destined for you. Allah the Almighty wishes to protect you. This”, i.e. the Holy Prophetsa, “is the Messengersa of Allah. Follow him, for when you follow him after having accepted Islam, he will protect you from falling into the fire. As a matter of fact, it is your father who will fall into this fire.”
Hence, Hazrat Khalidra presented himself before the Holy Prophetsa. [At that time] the Holy Prophetsa was at Ajyad in Mecca. Ajyad is situated adjacent to Mount Safa, where the Holy Prophetsa used to graze his sheep. Hazrat Khalidra submitted to the Holy Prophetsa, “O Muhammadsa! What do you call us towards?” The Holy Prophetsa stated, “I call people towards God, Who is One and has no partner and that Muhammadsa is His Servant and Messenger. Furthermore, I call for you to abstain from worshipping these stones, who can neither hear, nor see, nor harm you, nor benefit you. Moreover, they are unaware of who worships them and who does not.”
Upon this, Hazrat Khalidra submitted, “I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and I bear witness that you are the Messenger of Allah!” The Holy Prophetsa was extremely happy at Hazrat Khalid’sra acceptance of Islam. After having accepted Islam, Hazrat Khalidra went into hiding. When his father came to know of his acceptance of Islam, he sent his other sons, who were not Muslims, in order to look for him. Hence, they found him and brought him to their father.
Hazrat Khalid’sra father started to rebuke and beat him. He began hitting him repeatedly in the head with the stick that he was holding until he broke it, saying, “You have followed Muhammad[sa] despite witnessing the opposition he is facing by his people and despite the fact that he speaks against their idols and the ills of their forefathers.” Hazrat Khalidra replied, “By Allah, I follow Muhammadsa.” Upon this, his father became extremely enraged and said to him, “O foolish person, leave out of my sight and go where you please. I shall no longer feed you.” Hazrat Khalidra then said, “If you stop providing me with food, then Allah shall grant me the provisions for my sustenance.” His father then expelled him from his home and said to his children that none of them should speak to him. Hazrat Khalidra left and stayed with the Holy Prophetsa. Generally, he would remain on the outskirts of Mecca, away from his father, lest he was caught once more and be persecuted.
The father of Hazrat Khalidra was considered amongst the nobles of Mecca and severely persecuted the Muslims. Once, he fell sick, and due to the intensity of his illness, he said, “If Allah cures me of this illness (it is not known if he said Allah or a name of one of the idols, in any case, he said), if I am cured of this illness then the God of Ibn Abi Kabshah (i.e. Muhammadsa) shall no longer be worshipped in Mecca. I shall show such severity whereby I shall drive out all the Muslims from here.” When Hazrat Khalidra learnt of this, he prayed against his father, “O Allah, do not cure him.” Thereafter, he died of this illness.
When the Muslims migrated to Abyssinia the second time, Hazrat Khalidra was also among those who migrated. Accompanying him was his wife, Umaimah bint Khalid Khuza’iyyah. Hazrat Khalid’sra brother Hazrat Amr bin Saeedra also migrated with him.
During the Battle of Khaibar, Hazrat Khalidra went from Abyssinia to the Holy Prophetsa alongside Hazrat Ja‘farra bin Abi Talib. He did not participate in the Battle of Khaibar, but the Holy Prophetsa granted him a portion of the spoils of war. Thereafter, he participated in Umrah al-Qada, the Conquest of Mecca and in all the battles alongside the Holy Prophetsa such as the battles of Hunain, Ta’if, Tabuk, etc. (Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghabah fi Ma‘rifat al-Sahabah, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2008], pp. 124-125) (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 30)
He was unable to participate in the Battle of Badr and remained remorseful of this fact. He said to the Holy Prophetsa, “O Messengersa of Allah, we were unable to participate in the Battle of Badr.” The Holy Prophetsa replied, “Does it not please you that others have only had the honour of migrating once whereas you have migrated twice?” (Ibn Saad, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 4 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], p. 75)
In the book An Introduction to the Study of the Holy Quran, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IIra has counted Hazrat Khalidra bin Saeed bin Aas’ name as being among the list of scribes who would write down the revelations [of the Holy Quran]. (Dibachah Tafsir-ul-Quran, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 20, p. 425)
The Holy Prophetsa appointed Hazrat Khalidra bin Saeed as the alms collector in Yemen. He remained in this post until the demise of the Holy Prophetsa. After the demise of the Holy Prophetsa he came to Medina, and Hazrat Abu Bakrra asked him why he had returned. He answered that he would not work on behalf of anyone after the Holy Prophetsa. It is mentioned that he delayed in pledging allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakrra, and pledged allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakrra after the Banu Hashim had pledged allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakrra. Later on, Hazrat Abu Bakrra appointed Hazrat Khalidra as the commander of armies on various expeditions.
Hazrat Khalidra was martyred during the Battle of Marj al-Saffar during the Khilafat of Hazrat Abu Bakrra. Some have narrated that seeing as the Battle of Marj al-Saffar commenced in 14 AH during the Khilafat of Hazrat Umarra, it is said that Hazrat Khalidra was actually martyred in Syria, during the Battle of Ajnadain, 14 days prior to the demise of Hazrat Abu Bakrra. (Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghabah fi Ma‘rifat al-Sahabah, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2008], p. 125)
The details in Tarikh al-Tabari of Hazrat Khalid’sra expedition against the apostates are as follows:
“When Hazrat Abu Bakrra tied the flags for the battles to suppress the apostates and appointed the commanders, among those who were appointed was Hazrat Khalid bin Saeedra. Hazrat Umarra advised Hazrat Abu Bakrra against appointing him as a commander and submitted that no services should be sought from him. Hazrat Abu Bakrra said no” – he disagreed with the view of Hazrat Umarra – “and appointed Hazrat Khalidra as the commander of an army to provide reinforcements in Tayma. Tayma is a well-known city located between Medina and Syria. Accordingly, when Hazrat Abu Bakrra instructed Hazrat Khalidra bin Saeed to go to Tayma, he said, ‘Do not move from your position, invite those living in the near vicinity to meet you, accept only those who have not yet become apostates and do not fight until you receive further instructions from me, except in the case that they fight against you.’ Hazrat Khalidra stayed in Tayma and many of the nearby communities joined his forces. When the Byzantines learned of this great Muslim army, they sought reinforcements from the Arabs who were under their control to join them in the battle in Syria. Hazrat Khalidra informed Hazrat Abu Bakrra of the Byzantines’ preparations and the aid they were receiving from the Arab tribes. Hazrat Abu Bakrra replied, ‘Advance against them. Do not worry at all and seek help from Allah.’
“As soon as Hazrat Khalidra received this reply, he advanced towards the enemy. As he approached them, it so happened that the enemy was overcome by such awe that they scattered in all directions and fled. Hazrat Khalidra then occupied the enemy’s territory. The majority of the people that had come to Hazrat Khalidra accepted Islam. Hazrat Khalidra informed Hazrat Abu Bakrra about this victory. In response, Hazrat Abu Bakrra instructed, ‘Advance, but do not advance so much that the enemy gets an opportunity to attack you from behind.’” (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], pp. 331-332) (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 78)
These are the only records found in the books of history regarding the involvement of Hazrat Khalidra bin Saeed in the efforts against the apostates during the time of Hazrat Abu Bakrra. Apart from this, his role in the conquests in Syria during the time of Hazrat Abu Bakrra will be mentioned at a later time.
The eighth expedition against the rebellious apostates was that under the leadership of Hazrat Turaifah bin Hajiz. Hazrat Abu Bakrra tied a flag for Hazrat Turaifah bin Hajiz and instructed him to fight against Banu Sulaim and Banu Hawazin. (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], p. 257)
According to one narration, it is recorded that Hazrat Abu Bakrra sent Ma‘n bin Hajiz towards Banu Sulaim and Banu Hawazin. Nevertheless, in Al-Isti‘ab, Allamah Ibn Abd al-Barr has recorded the name of the father of Hazrat Turaifahra and Ma‘n as “Hajiz” with the letter “za”, while in Usd al-Ghabah, Allamah Ibn Athir has recorded it as Hajir with the letter “ra”. (Ibn Athir, Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2006], p. 208) (Ibn Abd al-Barr, Al-Isti‘ab fi Ma‘rifat al-Ashab, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2010], p. 326) (Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghabah fi Ma‘rifat al-Sahabah, Vol. 3 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2016], p. 73)
After being elected as the Khalifa, Hazrat Abu Bakrra appointed Hazrat Turaifahra bin Hajiz as governor over the Arabs of Sulaim that were firm upon Islam. He worked very sincerely and passionately. He delivered such effective speeches that caused many Arabs from the Banu Sulaim to join him. (Hazrat Abu Bakrke Sarkari Khutut, p. 33)
In another narration, it is recorded on the authority of Hazrat Abdullah bin Abi Bakrra:
“The condition of Banu Sulaim was such that after the demise of the Holy Prophetsa, some of them became apostates and reverted to disbelief. Some among them remained firm in their faith in Islam alongside the leader of their tribe, Ma‘n bin Hajiz, or according to others, his brother Turaifahra bin Hajiz. When Hazrat Khalidra bin Walid departed to fight against Tulaihah, Hazrat Abu Bakrra wrote to Ma‘n saying, ‘Take those from among Banu Sulaim with you who are firm upon Islam and join Hazrat Khalidra.’ Hazrat Ma‘n appointed his brother Turaifahra bin Hajiz as leader in his stead and went himself to join Hazrat Khalidra.” (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], p. 266)
There is another narration also reported by Hazrat Abdullah bin Abi Bakrra:
“A man from the Banu Sulaim came to Hazrat Abu Bakrra. He was known as Fuja, though his real name was Ayyas bin Abdillah. The name ‘Fuja’ has a connotation of surprise because this person would suddenly ambush travellers and settlements and loot them. For this reason, he was called Fuja. Nonetheless, he came to Hazrat Abu Bakrra and said, ‘I am a Muslim and I desire to wage jihad against those disbelievers who have become apostates. I request you to grant me a mount and your help.’ Hazrat Abu Bakrra provided him with a mount and some weapons.”
The details of this event also appear in another narration, stating that Hazrat Abu Bakrra provided him with two horses, or according to another narration, 30 camels, and enough weapons for 30 men and sent 10 armed Muslims to accompany him. This individual set forth from there and began stealing the wealth of any Muslim or apostate that crossed paths with him and killed all those who denied him. He treated everyone in this way. He killed and martyred Muslims as well. He was accompanied by a man from the Banu Sharid known as Najabah bin Abi Maitha. According to one narration, Fuja travelled towards his tribe, and along the way, recruited apostate Arabs. When his ranks increased, the first thing he did was he killed his Muslim companions and stole their wealth. Thereafter, he began looting and went from one tribe to the next. There was a party of Muslims en route to Medina, and he also looted and killed them. First, he looted them, and then he killed and martyred them. When Hazrat Abu Bakrra received news of him, he wrote to Hazrat Turaifahra bin Hajiz, while some say that Hazrat Abu Bakrra actually sent instructions to M‘an. From there, Ma‘n sent his brother, Turaifahra. Nonetheless, Hazrat Abu Bakrra wrote, “Fuja, God’s enemy, came to me and said that he was a Muslim. He requested me to provide him with the means to fight against those who took up apostasy and therefore, I provided him with a mount and weapons. Now, I know for certain that this enemy of Allah approached Muslims and apostates alike, stole their wealth and killed those that opposed him. Thus, take the Muslims with you and kill him or capture him alive and send him to me.”
According to one narration, Hazrat Abu Bakrra also sent Hazrat Abdullahra bin Qais to help Hazrat Turaifahra. Hazrat Turaifahra bin Hajiz set out to combat this individual. When the two parties came face to face, they fought with arrows alone. One arrow struck Najabah bin Abi Maitha and killed him. Upon seeing the bravery and steadfastness of the Muslims, Fuja addressed Hazrat Turaifahra and said, “You are not more entitled than I. You are a commander appointed by Hazrat Abu Bakrra himself, and I, too, am a commander appointed by him.” He tried, through his shrewdness, to halt the battle. Hazrat Turaifahra said to him, “If you are truthful, then drop your weapons. Hazrat Abu Bakrra has sent me to capture you. Drop your weapons and come with me to Hazrat Abu Bakrra. There it will be decided whether you have been made commander or not.” Fuja accompanied Hazrat Turaifahra to Medina. When the two of them came to Hazrat Abu Bakrra, Hazrat Abu Bakrra instructed Hazrat Turaifahra to take [Fuja] to Baqi and burn him. He was given this punishment because this is exactly how he treated the Muslims. Hazrat Turaifahra took him there, lit a fire and threw him into it. According to one narration, Fuja fled during the battle, Hazrat Turaifahra captured him after pursuing him and sent him to Hazrat Abu Bakrra. When he arrived before Hazrat Abu Bakrra, there was a great fire prepared for him in Medina. His hands and feet were tied and he was thrown into the fire. (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], p. 266) (Khurshid Ahmad Fariq, Hazrat Abu Bakrra ke Sarkari Khutut, pp. 33-34)(Imam Abu al-Hasan Ahmad bin Yahya al-Buladhari, Futuh al-Buldan – translated [Karachi, Pakistan: Nafees Academy], p. 152)
The ninth expedition against the rebel apostates was under the command of Hazrat Alara bin Hadrami. Hazrat Abu Bakrra entrusted one of the flags to Hazrat Alara bin Hadrami and instructed him to go to Bahrain. (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], p. 257)
Bahrain was between Yamamah and the Persian Gulf and it included present-day Qatar and the Island of the Bahranian Kingdom. It was not the smaller Bahrain of today but used to be quite vast. The capital was called Darin. During the time of the Holy Prophetsa, Mundhir bin Sawa was the King there, who entered the fold of Islam. In those days, Bahrain and Saudi Arabia were called al-Ahsa. (Atlas Sirat al-Nabisa, p. 68)
Hazrat Alara bin Hadrami’s background is that his name was Ala. His father’s name was Abdullah and he belonged to the Yemeni region of Hadhramaut. He had the honour of accepting Islam at its outset. One of Hazrat Alara bin Hadrami’s brothers, Amr bin Hadrami was the first disbeliever to be killed by a Muslim and his wealth was the first in the Islamic era to be distributed as khums. It is recorded with regard to the initial factors leading to the Battle of Badr that one of them was his killing. One of Hazrat Alara bin Hadrami’s brothers, Amir bin Hadrami was killed in the Battle of Badr whilst in the state of disbelief. When the Holy Prophetsa sent letters to various kings inviting them to Islam, Hazrat Alara bin Hadrami was entrusted with the task of carrying the letter addressed to Mundhir bin Sawa, the King of Bahrain. Thereafter, the Holy Prophetsa appointed him as a governor in Bahrain. When Hazrat Alara bin Hadrami conveyed the message of Islam to Mundhir bin Sawa he accepted Islam. When Mundhir received the message of Islam, he replied by saying, “I have pondered over this matter and I realised that whatever I possess is for the world, not for the Hereafter.” In other words, he said that whatever he had was all worldly and he had not prepared at all for the Hereafter. “When I pondered over your religion, I found it beneficial for both this world and the Hereafter. Therefore, there is nothing that can hinder me from accepting this faith. I am convinced of the truthfulness of Islam. This faith contains the desire to live this life and also grants comfort after one’s demise.” He said, “I used to be astonished at those who accepted this [religion] whereas now, I am astonished at those who reject it. When I learned of these beautiful teachings my perspectives changed entirely.” He continued, “The greatness of the law brought by the Holy Prophetsa demands that he be honoured and revered.” Hazrat Alara remained the governor of Bahrain until the Holy Prophet’ssa demise. He remained in the same post during the era of Hazrat Abu Bakr’sra Khilafat and Hazrat Umarra also kept him in the same post until he passed away during the era of Hazrat Umar’sra Khilafat. (Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghabah fi Ma‘rifat al-Sahabah, Vol. 4 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2016], p. 71) (Sheikh Shah Moinuddin Ahmad Nadvi, Siyar al-Sahabah, Vol. 4, pp. 397-398) (Muhammad al-Salabi, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiqra – Urdu Translation p. 339)
According to Tabaqat Ibn Saad, once, the people of Bahrain complained to the Holy Prophetsa about Hazrat Alara bin Hadrami upon which the Holy Prophetsa removed him from his post and appointed Hazrat Abanra bin Saeed bin Aas as the governor. (Ibn Saad, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 4 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1990], p.266)
After the demise of the Holy Prophetsa when apostasy and rebellion became rampant there, Hazrat Abanra returned to Medina and relinquished his post. When Hazrat Abu Bakrra desired for him to return to Bahrain he excused himself and stated that after the Holy Prophetsa he would not serve as a governor for anyone else. Upon this, Hazrat Abu Bakrra reinstated and sent Hazrat Alara bin Hadrami as the governor of Bahrain, a capacity in which he remained until his demise.
Hazrat Alara was known as one whose prayers would be answered, regarding which there are various narrations. Hazrat Abu Hurairahra used to say that he had been greatly influenced by his qualities and the acceptance of his prayers. Among many other things, it is mentioned in one narration that once, they departed from Medina towards Bahrain when, along the way, they ran out of water. Hazrat Alara bin Hadrami prayed to Allah upon which he saw a spring flowing from under the sand and they all drank to their fill.
Then, Hazrat Abu Hurairahra states:
“I accompanied Alara and his army from Bahrain towards Basra. We were in Liyath when he passed away.” Liyath was the name of a village in the area of Banu Tamim. “We were in an area where there was no water. Allah the Almighty manifested a small cloud for us which brought forth rain upon us. We washed his body and dug a grave for him with our swords. We did not make the inner cavity of the grave at the time with the thought that we would return to do so; however, we were unable to locate his grave upon returning after some time.” (Ibn Saad, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra – Translated, Vol. 4 [Karachi, Pakistan: Nafees Academy], p. 375, 377) (Khair al-Din al-Zarkali, Al-A‘lam, Vol. 4 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Ilm, 2002], p. 245)
There are varying opinions as to his demise; according to some, he passed away in 14 AH while according to others, it was in 21 AH. (Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghabah fi Ma‘rifat al-Sahabah, Vol. 4 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2016], p. 71)
It is recorded with regard to Bahrain’s state of affairs that it was under the reign of the kings of Heerah who were subordinate to the kings of Persia. Prior to Islam, Heerah was the royal seat for the kings of Iraq. The coastal and trade cities of Bahrain had mixed populations; they included Persians, Christians, Jews and Jaats. The Persians controlled the trade in the Arab lands. There was also a group of traders from India and Iran who had settled between the mouth of the Euphrates River and the coastal area of Aden. These tradesmen also started marrying the local people and their progenies would be called Abna. (Muhammad Husain Haikal, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra – Urdu Translation, p. 237) (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 110)
There were three large tribes and their sub-tribes residing in the environs of these coastal cities. One was Bakr bin Wa‘il, the second was Abd al-Qais and the third was Rabi‘iah. Many of the families belonging to these tribes were Christian. Breeding horses, camels and sheep along with planting date orchards was their specialty. The people who oversaw all of these things were the local leaders who were trusted by the government of Heerah. One of them was Mundhir bin Sawa who lived in the Hajar district of Bahrain and governed over the tribe of Abd al-Qais which dwelled near Hajar. (Khurshid Ahmad Fariq, Hazrat Abu Bakrra ke Sarkari Khutut [Delhi: Nadwat al-Musaniffin], p. 48)
There were two delegations from Abd al-Qais which met the Holy Prophetsa; one went to the Holy Prophetsa in 5 AH and comprised 13 or 14 people while the second delegation from Abd al-Qais went to the Holy Prophetsa again in Aam al-Wufud, or 9 AH and comprised 40 people including Jarudra. Jarud was a Christian who became a Muslim upon going there. (Atlas Sirat Nabawisa, p. 438)
According to one narration, this delegation had already accepted Islam before going to the Holy Prophetsa. (Sharh al-Zurqani ‘ala al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, Vol. 5 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1996], p. 141)
The Persians, Christians and Jews of Hajar had reluctantly agreed to pay jizyah. The remaining dwellings and cities of Bahrain remained non-Muslim; however, from time to time, they would raise rebellion at every opportunity. (Khurshid Ahmad Fariq, Hazrat Abu Bakrra ke Sarkari Khutut [Delhi: Nadwat al-Musaniffin], p. 48) (Sheikh Shah Moinuddin Ahmad Nadvi, Siyar al-Sahabah, Vol. 4, p. 398)
When Mundhir bin Sawa accepted Islam, the Holy Prophetsa retained him as the ruler of Bahrain as per the customs of the time. After accepting Islam, he began inviting his people to the true religion and sent Jarudra bin Mualla to the Holy Prophetsa in order to learn about the faith. Upon reaching Medina, Jarud learned about the Islamic teachings and commandments and then returned to teach people and propagate the religion and began acquainting them with the teachings of Islam.
A few days after the demise of the Holy Prophetsa, i.e. 11 AH, Mundhir also passed away. Upon this, Arab as well non-Arab tribes announced their rebellion. The Abd al-Qais tribe said, “If Muhammad[sa] was a prophet, he would not have died,” and thus they became apostates. Hazrat Jarudra learnt of this development. Hazrat Jarudra was considered among the nobles of his people. He had travelled to Medina to learn about Islam and migrated towards the Holy Prophetsa and was a good orator. (Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, Vol. 9 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Hajar, 2001], pp. 475-476)
Hazrat Jarudra gathered all those who had become apostates and explained to them about the demise of the Holy Prophetsa; he stood up to deliver a speech in which he said, “O Abd al-Qais! I ask you one thing; if you know the answer then tell me, and if you do not know then you do not need to tell me anything.” They replied that he may ask them whatever he wished. Hazrat Jarudra said, “Do you not know that Allah’s prophets appeared in the past?” The people replied, “Yes”, Hazrat Jarudra said, “Do you have knowledge about them or have you ever seen them?” The people said, “We have not seen them; we only know about them.” This was the reply of the people. Hazrat Jarudra said, “Then what happened to them?” The people said, “They passed away.” Hazrat Jarudra then said, “In the same way that they all passed away, Muhammadsa has also passed away, and I declare:
لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا اللّٰهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُوْلُهُ
“‘There is none worthy of worship, except Allah and that Muhammadsa is His Servant and Messenger.’” After listening to his speech and the questions and answers, they all said, “We also testify that aside from Allah, there is nobody worthy of worship, and indeed Muhammadsa is His Servant and Messenger. We consider you to be our esteemed elder and accept you as our leader.” This is how they remained steadfast upon Islam and were saved from the wave of apostasy. (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], p. 285)
The remaining Arab and non-Arab tribes became resolute on ending the authority of Medina. The Persian government supported them and gave charge of leading the rebellion to a prominent Arab chief. When Abbanra bin Saeed bin Aas – the representative of the Holy Prophetsa in Hajar – saw the dark clouds of rebellion rising up, he left for Medina. (Khurshid Ahmad Fariq, Hazrat Abu Bakrra ke Sarkari Khutut [Delhi: Nadwat al-Musaniffin], p. 49)
Although some of the people from the Banu Abd al-Qais tribe accepted Islam [again], however, the other tribes of Bahrain, led by Hutam bin Dubai‘ah, remained firm on their rebellious stance. They adopted kingship and appointed Mundhir bin Nu‘man, who was from among the family of Mundhir, as their king.
According to one narration, when they wished to appoint Mundhir bin Nu‘man as their king, a group of nobles and chiefs of the tribe went to see the Persian king. They requested permission to come in his presence, for which he granted them permission. They went before the king and offered praise that was befitting his status. The Persian king said, “O ye Arabs! What matter has brought you here?” They replied, “Your highness! The person who the tribes of Quraish and Muzar considered most honourable has passed away” – this was referring to the Holy Prophetsa – “and now, after him, a person who is frail and has poor judgement has stood as his successor.” They gave this opinion about Hazrat Abu Bakrra. “His governors have returned to their fellow companions in order to seek guidance. Today, the area of Bahrain has slipped from their grasp; except for a small party of the Abd al-Qais tribe everybody has left Islam. According to us, they have no standing or repute. We have the upper hand over them in terms of infantry and cavalry. Send someone to capture Bahrain, as there will be nobody to prevent him from taking over.” The Persian king said, “Who would you like for me to send with you to Bahrain?” They replied, “Whatever his royal highness deems suitable.” The Persian king replied, “What is your opinion with regards to Mundhir bin Nu‘man bin Mundhir?” They replied, “Your highness, we prefer him and would not like to appoint anyone other than him.” The Persian king then called Mundhir bin Nu‘man, who was just a youth and did not even have a fully grown beard yet. He adorned him with a robe of honour and gave him a crown. He was given 100 men as cavalry and a further 7,000 men as infantry. He was then ordered to go to Bahrain with the Bakr bin Wail tribe. Along with him were Abu Dubai‘ah Hutam bin Zaid; his name was Shuraih bin Dubai‘ah and he belonged to the Banu Qais bin Tha‘labah tribe; his title was Hutam; after having accepted Islam, he became an apostate; and also with him were Zabyan bin Amr and Musmi‘ bin Malik. (Waqidi, Kitab al-Riddah [Dar al-Gharb al-Islami, 1990], pp. 147-149)
The first thing they tried to do was to sway Jarudra and the Abd al-Qais tribe from Islam, but they were unsuccessful. Subsequently, Hutam bin Dubai‘ah tried to subdue them with force. He rallied together all those people who were foreign merchants or had not accepted Islam in the areas of Qatif and Hajar. (Muhammad Husain Haikal, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra – Urdu Translation [Lahore, Pakistan: Islami Kutub Khana], pp. 238-239)
The Abd al-Qais tribe gathered around their leader, Hazrat Jarudra bin Mualla, along with their allies and slaves, which totalled 4,000 people. The Bakr bin Wa’il tribe camped near them with their force of 9,000 Iranians and 3,000 Arabs. Subsequently, the two groups clashed in a fierce battle and the Bakr bin Wail tribe were dealt a blow; many people from this tribe as well as the Iranians were killed. Then a second severe confrontation [between the two camps] took place; this time the Abd al-Qais suffered great losses. Each group would confront the other in this way and this battle lasted many days, in which a lot of people were killed. The people of the Abd al-Qais tribe sought a peace treaty from the Bakr bin Wail [tribe]. The Abd al-Qais knew that at that point, they stood no chance against the might of the Bakr bin Wail. Thus they suffered defeat and they retreated to their fortress called Juwatha, which was situated in Hajar. Juwatha is the name of a settlement in Bahrain, and this was where the first Friday Prayers were offered after the Prophet’s mosque.
In Sahih al-Bukhari there is a narration from Hazrat Ibn Abbasra wherein he states:
إِنَّ أَوَّلَ جُمُعَةٍ جُمِّعَتْ بَعْدَ جُمُعَةٍ فِي مَسْجِدِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ فِي مَسْجِدِ عَبْدِ الْقَيْسِ بِجُوَاثَى مِنَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ
Meaning, “The first Friday prayers to be offered after the Holy Prophet’ssa mosque was in the mosque of the Abd al-Qais in Juwatha in Bahrain.”
The Banu Bakr bin Wa’il advanced along with their Iranian comrades and reaching their fort, they surrounded it and stopped any food provisions reaching them. On this occasion, a man from the Banu Bakr bin Kilab, Abdullah bin Auf Abadi, whose name is also recorded as Abdullah bin Hadhaf, composed some couplets; addressing Hazrat Abu Bakrra and the people of Medina, he expressed his helplessness and vulnerability and also spoke about their courage and patience.
أَلَا أَبْلِغْ أَبَابَكْرٍ رَسُوْلًا
وَفِتْيَانَ الْمَدِيْنَةِ أَجْمَعِيْنَا
فَهَلْ لِيْ فِيْ شَبَابٍ مِنْكَ أَمْسَوْا
جِيَاعًا فِيْ جَوَاثٰي مُحْصَرِيْنَا
كَاَنَّ دِمَاؤَهُمْ فِيْ كُلِّ فَجٍّ
شُعَاعُ الشَّمْسِ يَغْشَي النَّاظِرِيْنَا
تُحَاصِرُهُم بَنُوْ ذُهْلٍ وَ عِجْلٍ
وَ شَيْبَانَ وَ قَيْسٍ ظَالِمِيْنَا
يَقُوْدُهُمُ الْغُرُوْرُ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ
لِيَسْتَلِبَ الْعَقَائِلَ وَالْبَنِيْنَا
فَلَمَّا اشْتَدَّ حَصْرُهُمُ وَ طَالَتْ
أَكُفُّهُمُ بِمَا فِيْهِ بُلِيْنَا
تَوَكَّلْنَا عَلَي الرَّحْمٰنِ اِنَّا
وَجَدْنَا الْفَضْلَ لِلْمُتَوَكِّلِيْنَا
وَقُلْنَا قَدْ رَضِيْنَا اللّٰهَ رَبًّا
وَ بِالْاِسْلَامِ دِيْنًا قَدْ رَضِيْنَا
وَقُلْنَا وَالْأُمُوْرُ لَهَا قَرَارٌ
وَ قَدْ سَفِهَتْ حُلُوْمُ بَنِيْ أَبِيْنَا
نُقَاتِلُكُمْ عَلَي الْاِسْلَامِ حَتّٰي
تَكُوْنُوْا أَوْ نَكُوْنَ الذَّاهِبِيْنَا
بِكُلِّ مُهَنَّدٍ عَضْبٍ حُسَامٍ
يَقُدُّ الْبِيْضَ وَالزُّرْدَ الدَّفِيْنَا
This is a lengthy poem, but I will read out its translation which is as follows:
“O listener! Convey my message to Abu Bakr and the men of Medina: Will I receive any help from you for those young men in Juwatha who entered the night whilst in a state of hunger and besiegement? Their blood has been spilt on every path as if they are rays of sunlight which are causing every eye that looks upon it to be blinded. The tribes of Banu Zuhl, Ijl, Shaiban and Qais have besieged all of them through their oppression. They are being led by Ghuroor.” Ghuroor’s actual name was Mundhir bin Nu‘man bin Mundhir. “He intends to unlawfully seize our wives and children. When the siege they laid had intensified and prolonged, they gained complete control over us and we were placed in a trial as a result. We put our trust in the Gracious God for we have witnessed His grace being bestowed upon those who place their trust in Him. Thus, we are content with the fact that Allah is our Lord and that Islam is our religion. The conditions will return to normality eventually but the progeny of our forefathers have lost their senses, hence we shall remain firm upon Islam and fight against them until one of us is killed. We shall fight with the sharp Al-Hindi swords, which cut through the helmet and armour.”
This was the message composed in the form of a poem which Abdi sent. After reading this poem, Hazrat Abu Bakrra became extremely emotional upon learning of the condition of Abd Al-Qais. Hazrat Abu Bakrra called for Hazat Alara bin Hadrami and appointed him as the commander of the army and sent him along with 2,000 men from among the Muhajirin and Ansar towards Bahrain in order to help the Abd Al-Qais. Hazrat Abu Bakrra also instructed them, “Whichever tribe among the Arabs you pass, encourage them to fight against the Banu Bakr bin Wail. This is because they have come with Mundhir bin Nu‘man bin Mundhir, who has been appointed by the king of Persia. The king has placed a crown on his head and he intends to extinguish the light of Allah and they have killed the pious servants of Allah. Thus, you ought to depart whilst reciting:
لَا حَوْلَ وَلَا قُـوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللّٰه
That is, “None has the power to refrain from evil nor perform a good deed, except through the help of Allah.” (Waqidi, Kitab al-Riddah [Dar al-Gharb al-Islami, 1990], pp. 152-154) (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Jumu‘ah, Bab al- Jumu‘ah fi al-Qura wa al-Mudun, Hadith 892) (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], p. 286)
Hazrat Alara bin Hadrami set off and when he passed near Yamamah, Hazrat Thumamah bin Uthal met him with a party of the Banu Hanifah and his men joined with him and Qais bin Asim also joined the army of Hazrat Alara bin Hadrami along with his tribe, Banu Tamim. Before this, Qais bin Asim was among those who refused to pay the Zakat and stopped sending the Zakat to Medina, which had been collected by his tribe and instead returned the money to its people. However, when Hazrat Khalidra bin Walid defeated the Banu Hanifah in Yamamah, Qais bin Asim realised that it was better to reconcile and join the Muslims. And so, he collected the Zakat from his tribe, Banu Tamim and joined the army of Hazrat Alara bin Hadrami. (Muhammad Husain Haikal, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra – Urdu Translation [Lahore, Pakistan: Islami Kutub Khana], p. 239)
Hazrat Alara was taking his army to Bahrain from Dahna. Dahna is situated in the area belonging to the Banu Tamim and lies between Basrah and Mecca. The narrator states that when they reached there, they received an instruction to camp there. However, the camels became uncontrollable in the night and ran away, leaving them with no camels, provisions or tents. Everything that had been loaded upon the camels was lost in the desert. This incident occurred when everyone had dismounted from their camels and had not yet taken off their provisions that had been placed upon them.
At that time, they were overcome by grief and sorrow. Everyone had lost all hope of life and were expressing their final testimonies to one another. In that instance, a caller appointed by Hazrat Alara came and instructed everyone to gather in one place. They all gathered around him and Hazrat Alara stated, “What is this state of apprehension and desperation that I am observing? Why are you all so worried?” Upon this, people replied, “These are such a state of affairs that we cannot be blamed for [having such a reaction]. Our camels have fled and our condition at present is such that if we enter into the next day like this, we will all be completely destroyed even before the sun has fully risen.” Hazrat Alara stated, “O people, do not fear! Are you not Muslims? Have you not come to do jihad in the way of Allah? Are you not the helpers of Allah?” Everyone responded, “Indeed that is correct.” Hazrat Alara stated, “Glad tidings are given to you for Allah will never abandon such people who are in a condition like yours.” The Fajr azan was called at the break of dawn and Hazrat Alara led the prayers. Some people performed tayammum and offered their prayer as there was no water available, whilst others still had their ablution intact from before. When the prayer concluded, Hazrat Alara sat upon both knees and began to supplicate. Everyone else followed suit. Hazrat Alara raised his hands and began to fervently pray and everyone else did the same. They continued to pray until the Sun had risen. When a little bit of the sunlight appeared from the east, Hazrat Alara turned towards the rows of people and stated, “Is there anyone who can find out what this light is?” Someone went to find out and upon returning said, “This light is a mirage.” It was not actual water but a mirage from where the light was shining. Hazrat Alara occupied himself in prayer once again and again saw that light emerge. Upon investigating it again, they were informed that it was a mirage. Then, for a third time, the light appeared and this time the person who brought the news about it stated that it was water. Hazrat Alara stood up and everyone else also stood up. They came to the water and everyone drank from it and washed themselves. A spring had emerged from there. The sun had not fully risen yet when the camels belonging to those people could be seen running towards them from every direction. They came and sat next to them. Everyone took hold of their mount and nothing was lost from their possessions. This was a miracle wrought through prayer in that Allah the Almighty produced a source for water there and their camels also returned to them. The people also gave the water to their camels and they all drank from it to their fill and also their animals, and they also took some water along with them as well and rested comfortably.
Minjab bin Rashid states:
“At the time, Hazrat Abu Hurairahra was with me. When he had gone quite some distance ahead from where we were, he asked me whether I knew the area where the water was. I stated that I knew every inch of the area more than any other Arab. Hazrat Abu Hurairahra then asked me to take him where the water was.
“Subsequently, I turned my camel and brought him to the exact location where the water was. However, when we got there, there was no waterhole and not even any trace of water.
“I said to Hazrat Abu Hurairahra, ‘By God, even though I cannot see any water here but even then I will say that this is precisely the place where we collected water from. And I had never seen such clean and sweet water here before this day.’ Even at that time our vessels were filled with water.
“Upon this, Hazrat Abu Hurairahra stated, ‘O Abu Sahm! By God, this indeed is that very location and that is why I have come here and brought you with me. I filled my vessels with water and had left them at the edge of the waterhole, so as to find out whether this was a miracle of Allah or simply as a result of water produced by rainfall. Upon seeing this, indeed it is a miracle of Allah which He manifested in order to save us.’ Hazrat Abu Hurairahra then praised Allah and returned from there and camped at Hajar. (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], pp. 286-288) (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 123)
Hazrat Alara had written a letter to Hazrat Abu Bakrra, which stated:
“Allah the Almighty caused a water spring to emerge for us in the valley of Dahna, even though there was no sign of water there. He manifested a miracle for us after we had experienced great hardship and worry. This is a lesson for us all in that we ought to praise Him. Thus, I request you to pray to Allah for us and seek help for those who serve the faith.”
This was the report that was sent by Hazrat Alara to Hazrat Abu Bakrra upon the incident of finding water there. Hazrat Abu Bakrra praised Allah the Almighty, prayed to Him and then stated, “The Arabs would often say regarding the valley of Dahna that when Hazrat Luqmanas was once asked by the people as to whether they should dig in this land for water, he told them not to dig and said to them that water will never emerge from there. Therefore, for a spring to emerge from there is a huge sign of Allah’s power which we had never heard about from any nation of the past.” (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], p. 290)
Thus, the Companions who would go on expeditions in the way of Allah the Almighty would also experience such miracles. In any case, the remaining account shall, insha-Allah,be mentioned in the future.
(Official Urdu transcript published in Al Fazl International, 15 July 2022, pp. 5-10. Translated by The Review of Religions.)