14 January 2022
Men of Excellence: Hazrat Abu Bakr – Suraqah bin Malik and the Bracelets of Khusrow
After reciting the tashahhud, ta‘awuz and Surah al-Fatihah, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih Vaa said:
Accounts from the life of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra were being related two sermons ago and it was mentioned that Suraqah, in greed of the reward, also set out in pursuit of the Holy Prophetsa. However, when the decree of Allah the Almighty created hurdles before him, he requested the Holy Prophetsa to grant him protection when he would come into rule and he also requested the Holy Prophetsa for this to be put into writing.
There are various narrations in this regard. According to one narration, the Holy Prophetsa addressed him whilst he was returning and said, “O Suraqah! What shall be your state when the bangles of the Chosroes shall be on your wrists?” Suraqah turned around in astonishment and said, “Chosroes, the son of Hormizd?” The Holy Prophetsa said, “Yes, Chosroes, son of Hormizd.” Hence, during the era of Hazrat Umar’sra Khilafat, when the bangles, crown and girdle of the Chosroes were brought before him, he called for Suraqah and said, “Raise your hands.” He then placed the bangles around his wrists and said, “Proclaim that all praise belongs to Allah the Almighty, Who seized both of these from the Chosroes, son of Hormizd and granted them to you.” (Abdul Hameed Jaudah al-Sahhar, Muhammadur-Rasulullahi walladhina ma‘ahu, Vol. 3, al-Hijrah [Egypt: Maktabat Misr], p. 65)
It is also mentioned that Suraqah did not accept Islam during this migration, but did so when the Holy Prophetsa was returning from Hunain and Ta‘if at a place called Ji‘ranah. Ji‘ranah is the name of a well located close to Mecca and on the way towards Ta‘if. [On that occasion] the Holy Prophetsa said to Suraqah, “What shall be your state when you shall wear the bangles of the Chosroes?” (Bukhari Sharh al-Karmani, Vol. 14, p. 178, Bad‘ al-Khalq, Bab Alamat al-Nubuwwahfi al-Islam, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut) (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 88)
In Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin [The Life and Character of the Seal of Prophetssa], Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahibra has related this in the following manner:
“The Holy Prophetsa started off, but only a short time had passed when Hazrat Abu Bakrra noticed that a man was racing his horse in pursuit of them. Upon this, Hazrat Abu Bakrra worriedly said, ‘O Messengersa of Allah! A man pursues us.’ The Holy Prophetsa said, ‘Do not worry, Allah is with us.’ This pursuant was Suraqah bin Malik, who describes the tale of his pursuance in the following words, ‘When the Holy Prophetsa left Mecca, the infidels of the Quraish announced that whosoever brings back the Holy Prophetsa or Abu Bakrra dead or alive, shall be given such and such a bounty, and this announcement was given to us through their messengers as well.’” Suraqah said this. “‘After this, one day, I was sitting in a gathering of my people, the Banu Mudlij, when one man from the Quraish came to us and addressed me saying, “I have just seen two personages to the coast of the sea. I perceive that perhaps they are Muhammad[sa] and his companions.” Suraqah says, ‘I immediately figured that this must be them.’”
Following this, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahibra has mentioned the details of this incident including Suraqah’s pursuit, the omen not showing in his favour and also his horse sinking into the sand, all of which have already been mentioned. Nevertheless, Suraqah says:
“This entire ordeal led me to believe that this man’s star is prosperous and that in the end, the Holy Prophetsa would be victorious. Therefore, in a gesture of peace, I said, ‘Your people have set such and such a bounty for your assassination or capture, and people have planned such and such [conspiracy] against you. I also came with the same intention, but now I shall return.’”
Then, with regard to further details regarding Suraqah and the prophecy of the bangles of Chosroes, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahibra writes:
“When Suraqah was about to return, the Holy Prophetsa said, ‘What shall be your state when the bangles of the Chosroes shall be on your wrists?’ Flabbergasted, Suraqah enquired, ‘Chosroes, son of Hormizd, the Emperor of Iran?’ ‘Yes’, responded the Holy Prophetsa. Suraqah’s eyes were left wide open in amazement. A Bedouin of the Arabian Desert and the bangles of the Chosroes, Emperor of Iran! But look at the display of the power of truth. When Iran was conquered in the reign of Hazrat Umarra, the treasure of the Chosroes came to the Muslims as spoils of war. The bangles of the Chosroes also came to Medina in these spoils. Hazrat Umarra summoned Suraqah, who had become Muslim after the Fall of Mecca, and put the bangles of the Chosroes on his wrists, which were laden with precious jewels.” (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra, pp. 240-242)
Whilst mentioning this incident, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra states:
“The Meccans announced a reward of 100 camels for whoever caught Muhammadsa or Abu Bakrra, dead or alive. The announcement was made among the tribes around Mecca. Tempted by the reward, Suraqah bin Malik, a Bedouin chief, started in pursuit of the party and ultimately sighted them on the road to Medina. Upon seeing the two mounted camels, he realised that it was the Holy Prophetsa and Abu Bakrra, he spurred on his horse after them.”
Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra then mentioned the entire incident of Suraqah’s horse stumbling and falling and also him seeking an omen [by throwing arrows]. Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra continues:
“Suraqah says: ‘The Holy Prophetsa rode with dignity, and did not look back. Abu Bakrra, however, looked back again and again evidently, out of fear for the safety of the Holy Prophetsa.’”
After mentioning the details of the incident whereby Suraqah pursued after them, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra writes:
“Just as Suraqah was about to leave, the Holy Prophetsa received a revelation from Allah the Almighty about the future events and said, ‘Suraqah, how wilt thou feel with the gold bangles of the Chosroes on thy wrists?’ In utter astonishment, Suraqah asked, ‘Which Chosroes? Chosroes bin Hormizd, the Emperor of Iran?’ The Holy Prophetsa said, ‘Yes’.
“Sixteen or seventeen years later, the prophecy was literally fulfilled. Suraqah accepted Islam and went to Medina. After the demise of the Holy Prophetsa, first Hazrat Abu Bakrra, and then Hazrat Umarra became the Khalifas of Islam. The growing influence of Islam led the Iranians to attack the Muslims but, instead of defeating the Muslims, they themselves were defeated. The capital of Iran fell to the Muslims who captured its treasures, including the gold bangles which the Chosroes wore when he would sit on the royal throne.
“After becoming a Muslim, Suraqah used to relate the incident of the migration with great pride. Thus, the Muslims were well aware that the Holy Prophetsa had stated to him, ‘Suraqah, how wilt thou feel with the gold bangles of the Chosroes on thy wrists?’
“When the spoils of the war were placed before Hazrat Umarra, he saw the gold bangles of Chosroes and recalled that very incident. It was a time of weakness in which the Messengersa of Allah was forced to leave his city and migrate to Medina, and the reason why Suraqah and other men raced their horses in pursuit of him was so that they could somehow bring him back to the Meccans alive and acquire the reward of 100 camels. It was in such a time that the Holy Prophetsa stated, ‘Suraqah, how wilt thou feel with the gold bangles of the Chosroes on thy wrists?’ How grand a prophecy this was and how manifestly clear was this news of the unseen. When Hazrat Umarra saw the bangles of Chosroes before him, the power of God was visible before his eyes.
“He, therefore, sent for Suraqah. When Suraqah came, Hazrat Umarra ordered him to put on the gold bangles. Suraqah stated, ‘O Khalifa of the Messengersa of Allah! It is forbidden for Muslims to wear gold.’ Hazrat Umarra stated, ‘This is true, but not for occasions such as this one. Allah the Almighty had shown the Holy Prophetsa that Chosroes’ gold bangles were on your wrists; therefore either you wear them now or I will punish you.’ Suraqah was only objecting out of deference to the Shariah; otherwise, he was as eager as anyone else to provide visible proof of the fulfilment of the great prophecy. Suraqah put on the bangles and Muslims witnessed with their very eyes the fulfilment of this grand prophecy.” (Dibachah Tafsir-ul-Quran, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 20, pp. 224-226)
It is further mentioned that on his way back, Suraqah encountered an envoy that was sent to seek out the Holy Prophetsa. They asked Suraqah for any information about the Holy Prophetsa, but Suraqah not only refrained from telling them anything, he also spoke to them in a manner that caused them to halt their search. (Mustafa Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-Ibad, Vol. 3, Jama Abwab al-Hijrah ila al-Medina [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1993], p. 249)
During this migration, there is an incident recorded in reference to Umm Ma‘bad which is as follows:
During the migration, the caravan of the Holy Prophetsa stopped by a tent to acquire provisions for their journey. This was the tent of Umm Ma‘bad, whose real name was Atikah bint Khalid. She belonged to the branch of the Khuza‘ah tribe from the Banu Kaab. She was the sister of Hazrat Hubaishra bin Khalid, who was a companion and had the honour of relating traditions [of the Holy Prophetsa]. Umm Ma‘bad’s husband was known as Abu Ma‘bad. It is said that he too had the honour of relating traditions of the Holy Prophetsa. He passed away during the lifetime of the Holy Prophetsa. The exact name of Abu Ma‘bad is unknown. The tent of Umm Ma‘bad was located in Qudaid, which is a small village close to Mecca, located a few miles south of Rabiq. This is also where the altar of the well-known idol, Manat, was located. The people of Medina would worship this idol. (Ibn Hisham, Al-Raud al-Unf fi Tafsir al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 2, Nasab Umm Ma‘bad wa Zaujiha [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2013], p. 325) (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 232)
Umm Ma‘bad was a brave and strong woman, who would sit by the front of her tent and feed those who passed by. The Holy Prophetsa and his companions asked to purchase meat and dates from her, but she did not have what they required. At that point in time, the people of Umm Ma‘bad were impoverished and drought-stricken. Umm Ma‘bad said, “If we had anything, we would not keep it from you.” The Holy Prophetsa saw a goat in one corner of the tent and enquired, “O Umm Ma‘bad, what is the condition of this goat?” She replied, “This goat has been overcome by weakness to the extent that it cannot keep up with the herd.” In other words, it is so weak that it cannot even go out to graze with the rest of the herd. The Holy Prophetsa asked, “Does it give milk?” She replied, “It is so weak that it would be impossible for it to produce any milk.” The Holy Prophetsa asked, “Would you permit me to try and draw milk from it?” She said, “If you sense that she will give milk, then by all means; I do not have any objection to it.” Thus, the Holy Prophetsa was brought the goat. He passed his hand over her udder, and with the name of Allah, the Mighty and Powerful, prayed for the goat of Umm Ma’bad to be blessed. The goat comfortably stood before the Holy Prophetsa, began to produce a lot of milk and ruminate. Then, the Holy Prophetsa sought a vessel from them large enough to satiate an entire gathering. The goat produced so much milk to the extent that the froth overflowed from the vessel. The Holy Prophetsa offered the milk to Umm Ma‘bad, who became fully satiated. He then offered the milk to his companions, who also became fully satiated. After everyone else, the Holy Prophetsa himself drank from the milk and said, “He who serves others to drink should be the last to drink himself.” After a brief pause, the Holy Prophetsa milked the goat once more until the vessel was full again. He left that vessel with Umm Ma‘bad, purchased the goat from her and continued on his journey.” (Mustafa Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-Ibad, Vol. 3, Fi Hijrat Rasulsa Allah… [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1993], pp. 244-245)
It is written, “On the one hand, the Holy Prophetsa and his exceptionally devoted companion who was with him on the journey, Hazrat Abu Bakrra, were journeying with divine help and in the shade of protective angels, while on the other hand, the Meccans had not given up in their search. They continued in their pursuit of the Holy Prophetsa. It so happened that the pursuit of a search party from the Quraish led them to the tent of Umm Ma‘bad. As soon as they disembarked from their horses, they began to enquire about the Holy Prophetsa. Umm Ma‘bad realised what was happening and said, ‘You are saying things that I have never heard of, nor do I understand what you people are after.’ As soon as the search party became more aggressive in their questioning, this brave and astute woman said, ‘If you do not leave from here at once, I will call upon the people of my tribe.’ They recognised the status of this woman and thus realised that it would be better for them to leave.” (Abdul Hameed Jaudah al-Sahhar, Muhammadsa Rasul Allah wa alladhina ma‘ahu, Vol. 3, al-Hijrah [Egypt: Maktabat Misr], p. 67)
The Holy Prophetsa was still en route when he met Hazrat Zubairra, who was returning along with a Muslim caravan of merchants from Syria. Hazrat Zubairra presented the Holy Prophetsa and Hazrat Abu Bakrra with white clothes. (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Manaqib, Bab Hijrat al-Nabisa wa Ashabih ila al-Medina, Hadith 3906)
In reference to this meeting, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmed Sahibra writes:
“On the way, he met Zubair bin Al-Awamra, who was returning to Mecca with a small party of Muslims from a trading expedition in Syria. Zubairra gifted a white set of clothing to the Holy Prophetsa and one to Hazrat Abu Bakrra, and said, ‘After my return to Mecca, I too shall soon join you in Medina.’” (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra, p. 242)
There is a narration in Bukhari which states that on the way, many of the caravans that would pass by would recognise Hazrat Abu Bakrra as he would often embark on trade journeys using those routes. They would enquire who he was with and Hazrat Abu Bakrra would reply, “He shows me the way.”
هَذَا الْرَّجُلُ يَهْدِيْنِيْ الْسَّبِيْلَ
In other words, “This person guides me to the right path.” People would assume that the Holy Prophetsa was his guide whereas Hazrat Abu Bakrra meant in terms of spiritual guidance. (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Manaqib al-Ansar, Bab Hijrat al-Nabisa wa Ashabih ila al-Medina, Hadith 3911)
With regard to this, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahibra writes:
“Since the profession of Hazrat Abu Bakrra was that of a businessman, he would travel this route to and fro continuously. Most people recognised him, but were not familiar with the Holy Prophetsa. As such, they would enquire of Hazrat Abu Bakrra, ‘Who is the man ahead of you?” Hazrat Abu Bakrra would respond:
هَذَا يَهْدِيْنِيْ الْسَّبِيْلَ
‘This is my guide.’ They would think that he is a guide hired by Hazrat Abu Bakrra to direct his route, but the actual intent of Hazrat Abu Bakrra was something else.” (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra, p. 242)
With regard to reaching their final destination, it is written that on the Monday, after travelling for eight days, with the help of God, they finally reached Quba which was en route to Medina. It is mentioned in hadith that the Holy Prophetsa was born on a Monday, he left Mecca on a Monday, he arrived in Medina on a Monday and passed away on a Monday. (Mustafa Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-Ibad, Vol. 3, Jama‘ Abwab al-Hijrah ila al-Medina [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1993], p. 253) (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra, p. 243)
Quba was the name of a well and the village thus became commonly known as Quba where the Ansar tribe of Banu Amr bin Auf lived. This village was situated at a distance of two miles from Medina. (Shihab al-Din Yaqut Ibn Abd Allah al-Hamawi, Mu‘jam al-Buldan, Vol. 4, Zair Lafz ‘Quba’ [Beirut, Lebanon: Maktabah al-Misriyyah, 2014], p. 77)
According to other opinions, Quba was situated at a distance of three miles from Medina and was also known as Aliya. (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 230)
The Muslims in Medina heard about the Holy Prophet’ssa departure from Mecca and every morning they would go up to Harrah and wait for him. Medina is situated between two Harrahs. A Harrah is a dark stony terrain. Harrah Waqim is situated to the east of Medina and is also known as Harrah Banu Quraizah and the other one is called Harratul Waburah, which is situated to the west of Medina at a distance of three miles. They would wait until the intense heat of the afternoon would compel them to leave. They would go in the morning and wait and then return in the afternoon. One day, the people of Medina waited for quite a while before returning. As they reached their homes, a Jew climbed onto one of their forts in order to do some work and saw the Holy Prophetsa and his companions who were wearing white clothes. The mirage was moving away from them. Upon seeing this, the Jew could not hold back and loudly cried, “O Arabs! Here comes your leader who you were waiting for!” The Muslims rushed for their weapons and then met the Holy Prophetsa in the plains of Harrah. The Holy Prophetsa along with the rest of the companions turned to his right and reached the village of the Banu Amr bin Auf. This took place on a Monday in the month of Rabi-ul-Awal. Hazrat Abu Bakrra stood up for the people whilst the Holy Prophetsa quietly remained seated. Those Ansar who had not previously met the Holy Prophetsa came and offered their greetings of peace to Hazrat Abu Bakrra. When the sun began to shine upon the Holy Prophetsa, Hazrat Abu Bakrra stepped forward and created a shade for him with his mantle. It was then that people realised who the Holy Prophetsa was. The Holy Prophetsa spent more than 10 nights in the village of Banu Amr bin Auf and, according to a narration of Bukhari, he spent 14 nights and laid the foundation for the mosque regarding which it is stated that its foundation have been established upon taqwa [righteousness] and the Holy Prophetsa prayed inside it. (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Manaqib al-Ansar, Bab Hijrat al-Nabisa wa Ashabih ila al-Medina, Hadith 3906) (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Salah, Hadith 428) (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], pp. 101-102)
According to this narration of Bukhari, the Holy Prophetsa spent more than 10 nights in Quba. According to another narration, the Holy Prophetsa spent four days in Banu Amr bin Auf, i.e. Quba, that is Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday. On Friday, the Holy Prophetsa left for Medina. According to another narration, it is said that the Holy Prophetsa spent 22 nights [in Quba]. (Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 2, Bab Ard Rasulsa Allah Nafsah … [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2002], p. 75)
With regard to the Holy Prophet’ssa arrival in Quba, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra states:
“After seeing off Suraqah and having travelled some distance, the Holy Prophetsa arrived in Medina. The people of Medina were eagerly awaiting his arrival. A more auspicious day could not have dawned for them. For, the sun which had risen for Mecca had come instead to shine on Medina.
“The moment (the people of Medina) heard the news that the Holy Prophetsa was no longer in Mecca, they were expecting his arrival. Parties of them would travel miles out of Medina to look for him every morning and they would return disappointed in the evening. When the Holy Prophetsa reached near Medina, he decided to stop for a while in Quba, a nearby village. A Jew saw their camels and realised that this was the caravan of the Holy Prophetsa. He climbed a hillock and shouted, ‘O progeny of Qaila’” – Qaila was the name of one of the grandmothers of the people of Medina and hence they were also known as the progeny of Qaila, “‘he for whom you waited has come.’ Everyone in Medina who heard this cry rushed to Quba, while the people of Quba were overjoyed at the arrival of the Holy Prophetsa in their midst.
“The utter simplicity of the Holy Prophetsa is illustrated by an incident which took place at this time. Most people in Medina had not seen the Holy Prophetsa before. The Holy Prophetsa was sat under a tree outside of Quba, and people rushed towards them from Medina. Since the Holy Prophetsa was sat in a most simple manner, many of them who were unaware took Hazrat Abu Bakrra for the Holy Prophetsa. Hazrat Abu Bakrra, though younger, had a greyer beard and was wearing slightly better clothes than the Holy Prophetsa. Hence, they would turn to him and sit in front of him with great respect. When Hazrat Abu Bakrra saw this, he realised that people had made a mistake. He quickly rose and took his mantle and hung it against the sun and said, ‘O Messengersa of Allah! You are in the sun. I make this shade for you.’ In this subtle manner, he made plain to the people their error.” (Dibachah Tafsir-ul-Quran, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 20, pp. 226-227)
Whilst mentioning the details of this incident, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahibra has referenced a narration of Bukhari and writes:
“There is a narration in Bukhari related by Bara’ bin Azib that, ‘I have never seen the Ansar as happy as they were at the arrival of the Holy Prophetsa to Medina, on any other occasion.’ Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah have related from Anas bin Malik that, ‘When the Holy Prophetsa arrived, we felt as if Medina had become illuminated; and on the day that the Holy Prophetsa passed away, the city of Medina never seemed darker.’
“After meeting the people who had come to receive him, the Holy Prophetsa – due to a reason which history has not recorded – did not enter the city directly. Instead, the Holy Prophetsa travelled out of his way to the right, and went to an elevated habitation named Quba, which was situated at a distance of 2-2.5 miles from the city. Various families of the Ansar resided here; among them, the family of Amr bin Auf is distinct. In that era, Kulthum bin Al-Hadam was the chief of this family. The Ansar of Quba gave the Holy Prophetsa a very warm welcome. The Holy Prophetsa stayed in the home of Kulthum bin Al-Hadam. Those Muhajirin who had already reached Quba prior to the arrival of the Holy Prophetsa, were residing in the home of Kulthum bin Al-Hadam and other nobles from among the Ansar. Perhaps this is the reason behind the Holy Prophetsa deciding to first stop in Quba.
In an instance, news of the arrival of the Holy Prophetsa spread throughout Medina. All of the Muslims began to gather in troops at the residence of the Holy Prophetsa restlessly, in the fervour of their love.” (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra, pp. 264-165)
With regard to the construction of Masjid Quba, it is mentioned that when the Holy Prophetsa arrived in Quba, he laid the foundation for a mosque which is known as Masjid Quba. It is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari that the Holy Prophetsa spent more than 10 nights in the village of Banu Amr bin Auf and laid the foundation of a mosque regarding which it is stated that its foundations were laid on taqwa and the Holy Prophetsa offered his prayers inside it. (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Manaqib al-Ansar, Bab Hijrat al-Nabisa wa Ashabih ila al-Medina, Hadith 3906)
It is also mentioned in the narration that when the Holy Prophetsa laid the foundation, he first placed a stone in the direction of the qiblah [Holy Ka‘bah]. Thereafter, Hazrat Abu Bakrra placed a stone and then Hazrat Umarra placed a stone next to Hazrat Abu Bakr’sra stone. After this, the rest of the people began working on its construction. During the construction of Masjid Quba, the Holy Prophetsa would carry a stone tied to his stomach and it would be a very heavy stone and the Holy Prophetsa would then place it down. Others would come and would want to lift the stone, but they would be unable to do so. Upon this, the Holy Prophetsa would instruct them to leave it and to take another stone instead. (Ibn Hisham, Al-Raud al-Unf fi Tafsir al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 2, Ta‘yis Masjid Quba [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2013], p. 332)
In relation to Masjid Quba, it is mentioned that this was the very mosque whose foundations were established upon taqwa. However, according to some other narrations, it is said that Masjid Nabawi is the mosque whose foundations have been established upon taqwa.
It is mentioned in Sirat-ul-Halabiyyah that there is no contradiction in the two narrations because both mosques have been established upon the foundation of taqwa. This view has been supported by Hazrat ibn Abbasra. In his view, the foundations of all the mosques of Medina, in which Masjid Quba is included, were established upon taqwa, but the mosque regarding which the verse of the Holy Quran was revealed was indeed Masjid Quba. (Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2002], p. 75)
After spending 10 or 14 nights in Quba, the Holy Prophetsa left for Medina. On the way when the Holy Prophetsa reached the village of the Banu Salim bin Auf, it was a Friday. The Holy Prophetsa, along with the Muslims, offered the Jumuah prayer [Friday prayer] in the mosque situated in the Valley of Ranuna. The total number of people was 100. The Valley of Ranuna is situated to the south of Medina. Ever since the Holy Prophetsa offered his Jumuah prayers there, it is known as “Masjid al-Jumu‘ah.” This was the first Jumuah offered in Medina. (Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 2, Bab al-Hijrah ila al-Medina [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2002], p. 75) (Ibn Hisham, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Bab Hijrat al-Rasulsa [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2001], p. 349) (Atlas Sirat Nabawisa, p. 168)
Perhaps the mosque was built afterwards and was named Masjid al-Jumu‘ah because the Holy Prophetsa offered his Jumuah there. It is then mentioned that after offering the Jumuah prayers, the Holy Prophetsa mounted upon his camel and left for Medina and he had seated Hazrat Abu Bakrra behind him. (Sharh al-Zurqani ala al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1996], p. 157)
The greed of the reward made a lot of people pursue the Holy Prophetsa. There is an incident mentioned in books of history: Buraidah bin Husaib states, “When the Quraish announced a reward of 100 camels for whoever goes after the Holy Prophetsa and brings them back dead or alive, I was also tempted by greed. Subsequently, I set out with 70 riders from the Banu Sahm and met with the Holy Prophetsa. The Holy Prophetsa asked me who I was, to which I replied, ‘Buraidah’. Upon this, the Holy Prophetsa turned towards Hazrat Abu Bakrra and said, ‘O Abu Bakr! We have been granted relief and our matter has eased.’ The Holy Prophetsa then said, ‘Which tribe do you belong to?’ I replied, ‘The tribe of Aslam’. The Holy Prophetsa said, ‘May peace be with them.’ He then asked, ‘From which progeny?’ to which I replied, ‘From among the Banu Sahm.’ The Holy Prophetsa said, ‘O Abu Bakr! You are very fortunate.’”
Buraidah then asked the Holy Prophetsa, “Who are you?” The Holy Prophetsa replied, “I am Muhammadsa, son of Abdullah, the Messenger of Allah.” Upon this Buraidah said, “I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, and Muhammadsa is His servant and messenger.” Buraidah accepted Islam and also all those who were with him. Buraidah then said, “All praise belongs to Allah, the Banu Sahm accepted Islam wholeheartedly without any compulsion.” The following morning, Buraidah said, “O Messengersa of Allah! You ought to enter Medina with a flag.” He then took off his turban and tied it to a spear and began walking ahead of the Holy Prophetsa and the Muslims then entered Medina. (Sharh al-Zurqani ala al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1996], p. 148) (Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 2, Bab al-Hijrah ila al-Medina [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2002], p. 71)
Regarding the Holy Prophetsa entering Medina, Hazrat Anasra bin Malik has narrated an account in Sahih al-Bukhari as follows:
“The Messengersa of Allah came to Medina and stayed in the upper part of Medina for 14 nights with a tribe called Banu Amr bin Auf. He then sent for the chiefs of Banu al-Najjar, who came armed with their swords. I remember this incident as if I can see the Holy Prophetsa riding his camel before my very eyes and Hazrat Abu Bakrra was riding behind him and the chiefs of Banu al-Najjar were around him till he dismounted in the courtyard of Abu Ayyub.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Salah, Bab hal Tunbashu Qubur Mushriki al-Jahiliyyah, Hadith 428)
Talkinh about this incident, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahibra writes:
“After a stay of more than 10 days in Quba, on Friday, the Holy Prophetsa set out for the heart of the city. A large party from among the Ansar and Muhajirin accompanied the Holy Prophetsa. The Holy Prophetsa was riding a camel, and Hazrat Abu Bakrra was behind him. Slowly but surely, this caravan began to advance towards the city. The time for Friday prayers arrived en route. The Holy Prophetsa stopped in the neighbourhood of the Banu Salim bin Auf. He delivered a sermon to his Companions, and led the Friday Prayer. Historians write that, although the Friday Prayer had already begun, this was the first Friday prayer which the Holy Prophetsa led himself and thereafter the formal practise of the Friday Prayer began.” From this narration it also suggests that the mosque was built later.
“After completing the Friday Prayers, the caravan of the Holy Prophetsa continued to slowly proceed further. When the Holy Prophetsa would pass by the homes of Muslims, in the fervour of their love they would move forward and say, ‘O Messengersa of Allah! This is our home. Our wealth and lives are at your behest. We also possess means of protection. Please stay with us.’ The Holy Prophetsa would supplicate for their prosperity and slowly moved towards the city. In the fervour of their happiness, the Muslim ladies and girls climbed the roofs of their homes and began singing:
طَلَعَ الْبَدَرُ عَلَيْنَا
مِنْ ثَنِيَّاتِ الْوَدَاعِ
وَجَبَ الشُّكْرُ عَلَيْنَا
مَا دَعَى لِلہ دَاعِ
“‘Today, the full moon has risen upon us from the valleys of Mount Wada‘; For this reason, gratitude to Allah has become forever obligatory upon us.’
“The Muslim children ran about in the streets and alleys of Medina singing, ‘Muhammadsa has arrived. The Messengersa of Allah has arrived.’ To express their happiness upon the arrival of the Holy Prophetsa, the Abyssinian slaves of Medina would move about demonstrating their feats of swordsmanship.
“When the Holy Prophetsa entered the city, every individual desired that the Holy Prophetsa stay with them. Each and every person would advance to offer their services. The Holy Prophetsa would respond lovingly to everyone, and move forward until his she-camel reached the neighbourhood of the Banu Najjar. At this place, the people of Banu Najjar stood in rows, decorated with arms to welcome the Holy Prophetsa. The girls of this tribe were reciting the following couplet whilst beating their drums:
نَحْنُ جَوَارٍ مِنْ بَنِيْ نَجَّارِ
يَا حَبَّذَا مُحَمَّدٌ مِنْ جَارِ
“‘We are girls of the Banu Najjar; How fortunate are we that Muhammadsa, the Messenger of Allah, has come to stay in our neighbourhood.’” (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra, p. 266-267)
With regard to the Holy Prophetsa calling over his family and the family of Hazrat Abu Bakrra to Medina, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra writes:
“A short while after arriving in Medina, the Holy Prophetsa sent his freed slave, Zaidra, to Mecca to bring his family and relatives. The Meccans had been overwhelmed by the sudden and well-planned departure of the Holy Prophetsa and his followers and so, for some time they stopped their cruelty to the Muslims. Owing to this, when the Prophet’ssa family and the family of Abu Bakrra left Mecca they raised no objections. The two families reached Medina safe and sound. In the meantime, the Holy Prophetsa laid the foundations of a mosque on the site he had bought. After this, he built houses for himself and for his Companions.” (Dibachah Tafsir-ul-Quran, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 20, p. 230)
After migrating to Medina, Hazrat Abu Bakrra stayed in Sun‘a with Hazrat Khubaib bin Isaf. Sun‘a was the name of a place on the outskirts of Medina, which was approximately two miles from Masjid Nabawi. Hazrat Khubaib belonged to the Banu Harith bin Khazraj tribe. In one narration, it is mentioned that Hazrat Abu Bakrra stayed with Hazrat Kharijah bin Zaid. (Ibn Hisham, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Bab Hijrat al-Rasulsa [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2001], p. 348)
According to some narrations, Hazrat Abu Bakrra built his house and clothes mill in Sun‘a and began trading from there. (Maqalat Sirat, Vol. 3, p. 131, Maktabah Islamiyyah, Lahore, 2016)
Insha-Allah, these accounts will continue in the future.
At present, I would like to speak about some deceased members, among whom the first mention is of Chaudhry Asghar Ali Klar Sahib, who was imprisoned in the way of Allah. He was the son of Muhammad Sharif Sahib Klar of Bahawalpur. On 10th January, he became unwell whilst he was in prison and passed away in hospital.
إِنَّا لِلّٰهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيۡهِ رَاجِعُونَ
[Surely, to Allah we belong and to Him shall we return.]
In this way, he will be counted amongst the martyrs. According to the details, on 24 September 2021, he was, God-forbid, charged under the blasphemy law, under Section 295-C, at the Baghdad-ul-Jadeed Police station in Bahawalpur. They instantly sanction Ahmadis under the blasphemy law. He was arrested on 26 September, after which the deceased remained in Bahawalpur jail. On 4 January, the deceased was transferred to Bahawalpur Hospital after vomiting blood and received treatment. However, on 10 January, just before the time of Fajr, he passed away in hospital whilst in a state of imprisonment.
إِنَّا لِلّٰهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيۡهِ رَاجِعُونَ
[Surely, to Allah we belong and to Him shall we return.]
At the time of his demise, he was 70 years old. On 8 January, there was a court hearing for Asghar Sahib’s bail request; however, the police did not bring the records, owing to which the hearing was postponed to 11 January. However, before the verdict, the deceased passed away and met with his creator. Asghar Sahib was a prisoner in the way of Allah for three months and 15 days.
In 1971, whilst he was still young, the deceased pledged allegiance and joined the Ahmadiyya Community himself after completing his matriculation examination. He was the only Ahmadi in his family and had to face a lot of opposition due to it; however, he always remained steadfast.
He obtained a master’s degree in maths from FC College [Lahore]. During his studies, because he had accepted Ahmadiyyat, his parents stopped supporting him financially, and placed a condition stating that they would only help pay for his studies if he left Ahmadiyyat. Despite this, he remained steadfast and paid for his studies by giving tuition to other children. Later on, upon seeing his steadfastness and righteousness, his father stopped his opposition. One virtue on part of his father was that he feared that his son, who was an Ahmadi, would not be given his share from his inheritance, his father decided to transfer his share in his lifetime.
By the grace of Allah the Almighty, the deceased gave Wasiyyat at a rate of 1/8 and would readily partake in financial initiatives. He would pay the full amount [of chanda] with the announcement of the new year. He had a sincere bond of love with Khilafat. Hospitality and respect for life-devotees and guests from the central headquarters was a particular quality of his. He would offer his car to be used in official Jamaat visits. He had a passion to propagate the message of Islam and would bravely invite others towards Allah the Almighty. Allah the Almighty enabled many righteous souls to accept the message of Ahmadiyyat and join the Jamaat through Asghar Sahib. Aside from being regular in fasting and the obligatory prayers, he was regular in offering the Tahajjud prayers.
He would look after the poor and was always willing to help and assist others. Despite opposition from his family members, he would help every single member of his family financially and was courteous towards them. The deceased had a deep yearning to attain martyrdom, and Allah the Almighty fulfilled his wish in this way.
Asghar Sahib’s wife says, “Whilst he was in jail, during a visit, he said that Allah the Almighty had conveyed the greetings of peace to him three times. He narrated another dream in which he saw his body leaving the jail.”
The deceased served as nazim Ansarullah, zaeem-e-ala of Bahawalpur city, secretary dawat ilallah, secretary Waqf-e-Jadid, and secretary islah-o-irshad of the district. At the time of his demise, he was serving as the qazi of the district. Asghar Sahib is survived by his wife, two sons and one daughter. One of his sons is abroad and his daughter is in Canada.
May Allah the Almighty shower His mercy and forgiveness on Asghar Ali Klar Sahib and elevate his station. May Allah the Almighty bestow steadfastness and patience to those he leaves behind and enable them to follow in his footsteps. Also pray for others who have been imprisoned in the way of Allah, may Allah ensure the means for their release.
The next mention is of Mirza Mumtaz Ahmad Sahib, who was a worker in Wakalat-e-Ulya, Rabwah. He passed away at the age of 85.
إِنَّا لِلّٰهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيۡهِ رَاجِعُونَ
[Surely, to Allah we belong and to Him shall we return.]
He was a musi by the grace of Allah the Almighty. Ahmadiyyat was established in his family through his father, Captain Dr Sher Muhammad Ali Sahib, who accepted Ahmadiyyat in 1923. Mirza Mumtaz Sahib began working as a clerk in the office of Amanat Tahrik-e-Jadid in April 1964 and served in this post for the remainder of his life – a span of 58 years. He was married to Majida Begum, daughter of respected Chaudhary Muzaffar Din Bengali Sahib. Allah the Almighty blessed them with two sons and a daughter.
His grandson, Khalid Mansoor writes:
“My grandfather always encouraged us to continue serving the Jamaat. He would explain to us the importance of praying in congregation and enjoined us to do so.” He says, “After my father passed away, my grandfather never let me feel his absence. I always found him to be a friend, and always saw him busy with Jamaat work. He was an exemplary friend, father and worker of the Jamaat. He treated everyone with love, compassion and kindness. He was very punctual and would highlight its importance.”
Saeed Ahmad Sahib, one of the workers who had the opportunity of working alongside him, says:
“I had the opportunity to work alongside him for quite some time; he worked in a very meticulous manner, and after completing his work, he would help his colleagues in their work as well.”
Luqman Saqib Sahib, a missionary says:
“I observed that despite being physically frail, he would complete the tasks entrusted to him with efficiency and in an excellent manner. His memory remained remarkable until the very end; he could immediately recall matters from many years ago and would specify which files they were in and where they could be found. He appreciated decent jokes and would enjoy them, yet at the same time, it was not in his nature to talk or converse unnecessarily. If there was some extra time after he had completed his work, he would remain seated in the office and go over some old files.”
Dr Sultan Mubashar also writes:
“He was very humble; despite being a senior worker, he would always wait his turn and never expressed any haste when he visited the hospital. One of his great qualities was showing gratefulness and appreciation, and he was also extremely patient. Despite enduring an extended illness which caused great discomfort, he never became impatient.”
His circle of friends was very small; it comprised a few friends from the office. I myself have seen him to be very quiet in nature and interacting with his close friends. It was his routine to go straight home from the office, and then from home to the office. He worked very hard and he lived his life with sincerity and loyalty.
May Allah the Almighty grant him His forgiveness and mercy. May He enable his children to carry on his virtues.
The next mention is of Colonel Dr (retired) Abdul Khaliq Sahib, who was the former administrator of the Fazl-e-Umar Hospital. He recently passed away at the age of 97.
إِنَّا لِلّٰهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيۡهِ رَاجِعُونَ
[Surely, to Allah we belong and to Him shall we return.]
He was a musi, by the grace of Allah the Almighty. Ahmadiyyat was introduced to his family through his father Mian Muhammad Alam Sahib, who accepted Ahmadiyyat in 1919, and Dr Abdul Khaliq Sahib accepted Ahmadiyyat in 1938. Whilst recounting the incidents surrounding his own bai‘at, he says:
“Our father had subscribed to Al Fazl and I was introduced to Ahmadiyyat by studying that. Then, in 1938, the three of us siblings accepted Ahmadiyyat. Our respected mother was regular in offering prayers and fasting; she also accepted Ahmadiyyat a short while after us.”
He says, “I went to Qadian for the first time on the occasion of Jalsa in 1939 which was also the Jubilee Jalsa, after which I would often attend the Jalsa.”
His wife passed away in 1987, and they had two sons and two daughters. One of his sons is Dr Abdul Bari, who is the amir of Jamaat-e-Ahmadiyya Islamabad. When the government of Bhutto issued the unjust ordinance declaring Ahmadis as non-Muslims in 1974, Doctor Sahib resigned from his government job and offered his services under the Nusrat Jahan Scheme. In 1977, he was sent by the Central Headquarters to Sierra Leone, where he served humanity for three years. Then, in 1992, PIA started flights to Tashkent; seeing this as an opportunity, Doctor Sahib requested to do waqf-e-arzi [temporary period of devoted service] in Tashkent and Uzbekistan. The Central Headquarters approved this request, and he, along with his younger sister, travelled to Samarqand and Bukhara where they spent their waqf-e-arzi. During this time, he selflessly served humanity and also had the honour of spreading the message of Ahmadiyyat. In 1994, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IVrh appointed him as the administrator of the Fazl-e-Umar Hospital in Rabwah, a post in which he served until June 2005, a period of more than ten years. Various construction and expansion projects were completed during his time.
One of his children writes that despite being 80 or 81 years of age at the time, he had a youthful spirit of service. At the same time, he was aware that old age was dawning upon him. Thus, he wrote a request to me in 2005 for retirement, and thereafter he officially took retirement. He then took up residence in Islamabad, where he served as a local qazi.
His elder son, Dr Abdul Bari says:
“He was always mindful of his children’s religious and moral training. He would recite the Holy Quran throughout the day, and this was his favourite practice. Whenever decisions had to be made in important matters, he would always decide in light of the Holy Quran.”
His son-in-law, Dr Muzaffar Ali Nasir who is the naib amir of District Wah Cantt says:
“To this day, I have never seen anyone recite the Holy Quran as much as he did. He loved the Quran; once, when he was discharged from the hospital, the staff were sad, asking who would recite the Holy Quran to them. His regularity in offering Tahajjud, whether in the winter or the summer was exemplary for us. He had a deep love for Khilafat and the Jama’at. He led a simple life and never complained.”
His brother’s grandson, Abdul Samad Rizvi Sahib, writes:
“He endured every hardship and would give up his own happiness for the sake of attaining Allah the Almighty’s pleasure.” He says, “I had the opportunity of staying at his home in Rabwah on many occasions; his personality was a means for me to recognise the Living God. The standard of his tahajjud prayers was exemplary; the honour and love for Khilafat was deeply rooted within him and this proved to be an excellent means for our moral training.”
Dr Abdul Khaliq, a doctor at the Fazl-e-Umar Hospital says:
“He was very kind to the young doctors at the hospital and would encourage the senior doctors to pay special attention to the younger doctors’ training. He oversaw the finances of the hospital with honesty and care. He tended to the poor and needy by spending out of his own pocket.”
Dr Muhammad Ahmad Ashraf says:
“He was considerate, tender-hearted and forbearing. He was very kind and did not have the habit of speaking much. He kept a detailed watch over administrative matters and would ensure that principles were adhered to.” He would encourage other doctors to undertake waqf-e-arzi at Fazl-e-Umar Hospital, including his sons and his sons-in-law.
May Allah the Almighty grant the deceased His forgiveness and mercy and enable his children to carry on his virtues.
After the [Friday] prayers, I will lead their funeral prayers [in absentia].
(Original Urdu transcript published in Al Fazl International, 4 February 2o22, pp. 5-10. Translated by The Review of Religions.)