Ata-ul-Haye Nasir, Al Hakam
This is the second part of the article, on “Sadaqat-e-Islam aur Zara’i Taraqqi-e-Islam” (The truthfulness of Islam and the means for its progress), a lecture delivered by Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud, Mirza Bashir-ud-Deen Mahmood Ahmadra on 22 February 1920 at the Vande Mataram Hall in Amritsar.
A beloved of God in our era
“Hence, there have been many holy personages who were the beloveds of God Almighty, and a beloved of God Almighty has come in this era as well. Due to the evils of this age, and people’s distance from God Almighty and abandoning Him, God Almighty appointed a person [Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmadas, the Promised Messiah] who served Islam and proved its truthfulness. This was an era when the teachings of the Holy Prophetsa were regarded as the ‘worst of the worst’ [God forbid]. It was claimed that they would vanish from the world within a hundred years. At that time, the honour of God Almighty ignited with fervour, and He declared, ‘Who would dare to erase the teachings of Muhammadsa?’ Thus, this was an age when the situation of [the followers of] Islam was pitiable and Islamic teachings were being attacked. Moreover, due to the advancement of science and other disciplines new kinds of objections were being raised, and people would say that ‘there are such teachings in the Holy Quran that are against reason’. Hence, with the emergence of every new science, people would attack Islam. When Darwin’s theory [of evolution] emerged, Islam was attacked through it. Islam was subjected to criticism from the perspective of geology. In light of astronomy, ‘defects’ were being pointed out in [the teachings of] Islam. In short, as a result of the research on every discipline, it was said that ‘Islam is filled with flaws and mistakes and cannot stand in front of any discipline.’ For this reason, they claimed that ‘the Muslims would leave Islam themselves as soon as they are acquainted with the [new] disciplines.’ Moreover, this thought spread so much that many of the so-called Muslims said that there is a need for reform in Islam and that its teachings should be made compatible with the current era.
“In that particular circumstance, the divine honour of God surged with enthusiasm, as He conveyed to Muhammadsa, ‘You are so deeply cherished by Me that even your followers would become dear to Me,’ and His love blossomed like a flowing fountain. To prove the majesty of Islam and the greatness of the Holy Prophet Muhammadsa, He appointed a person who held no status in terms of worldly majesty, strength, wealth, money, fame or honour and said that through this very person, He shall establish Islam in this era and propagate it in the world. Thus, in such a calamitous and delicate time, God Almighty opened up a door to prove the truthfulness of Islam, and chose that person from Qadian, and said to him ‘Since you have brought yourself under the complete servitude of Muhammadsa, now I am appointing you to serve Islam and to [prove] the majesty of Muhammadsa.’
“Now, the question arises as to how one could know that this person had love for God Almighty and God Almighty also loved him, and how does his appointment prove the truthfulness of Islam? […] The one who is the beloved of God Almighty is granted His help as well. One ought to look from this perspective as to whether or not he had the help and succour of God Almighty. To assess this, one should see that when he stood up to serve Islam, as I have indicated earlier, his circumstances were very ordinary; he had no [worldly] might or strength, and neither was he famous in the world. He did not have any wealth, following, or power. However, in that era, he proclaimed that God has given him the following glad tiding:
میں تیری تبلیغ کو زمین کے کناروں تک پہنچاؤں گا۔
“[‘I shall carry your message to the ends of the earth.’ (Tadhkirah [English], p. 407)]
“He also announced that God Almighty has told him the following:
فَحَانَ اَنْ تُعَانَ وَتُعْرَفَ بَیْنَ النَّاسِ
“Meaning, ‘The time has come that you should be helped and be recognised among people.’ [Tadhkirah [English], p. 289]
“Then he announced after having received the glad tiding from God Almighty that:
دنیا میں ایک نذیر آیا پر دنیا نے اُس کو قبول نہ کیا لیکن خدا اسے قبول کرے گا اور بڑے زور آور حملوں سے اُس کی سچائی ظاہر کردے گا۔
“Meaning, ‘A Warner came unto the world, but the world accepted him not; yet God shall accept him and demonstrate his truthfulness with mighty assaults.’ (Tadhkirah [English], p. 128)
“In short, at the time when he was alone, he had no following either; people would not come to his town from outside; his town was not a famous one; rather, it was an ordinary and small town. At that time, God told him that ‘I will spread your name in the world.’ […] Now, one ought to see whether or not he gained that honour and fame in the world and whether or not he attained the help and support that were promised to him by God Almighty. […] After his claim, he gained such fame in the world that there is no country or place whose people are unaware of him; his name spread to every country and nation, and in this way, that prophecy was fulfilled which he had announced after having received the glad tidings from God Almighty at a time when he was completely unknown. One could say that ‘Mirza Sahib had made a claim of a new kind, and the name of such people often spreads who make such new claims.’ However, we say that he did not claim anything new. In the same era, many other people had also made new kinds of claims; where did their names spread? Moreover, there is not a single person among those who claimed that their name would spread to the whole world, and that happened as well. This distinctive feature is only held by the Promised Messiahas, that everything transpired in accordance with what he had foretold. It proves that he had inculcated within him the love of God Almighty; otherwise, there were such people in the same Punjab who made certain claims, but neither their names spread nor did they make such announcements in advance, as did the Promised Messiahas.
Propagation of Islam through the Promised Messiahas
“Now, we ask as to whether or not everything happened in accordance with what had been foretold by the Promised Messiahas. Yes, it happened for sure. The [people of] same nations that proclaimed that Islam would be effaced within a century, accepted Islam through him. From among the European people – who, due to the decline of Muslims in various sciences and civilisation, would say that ‘Islam is a religion of ignorance,’ and would see Islam with immense hate – many of them have accepted Islam and did so at a time when the world had claimed that Islam would be effaced. They came under the fold of Islam at a time when presenting Islam to people was a far cry; even the so-called Muslims were shy of [expressing their belief in] it. In this way, did not the prophecy of the Promised Messiahas prove to be true, which he had made in accordance with God Almighty’s glad tidings that Islam would spread through him? […] The servants of the Promised Messiahas stood in front of the same religions which were declaring Islam to be ‘a religion of ignorance and madness’ and defeated them [through preaching] and raised the slogans of لَآ اِلٰہَ اِلَّا اللہُ [There is none worthy of worship except Allah]. Now look at [the people of] Europe, the same people who wanted to make us followers of the Trinity; the call of لَآ اِلٰہَ اِلَّا اللہُ is echoing at the homes of many of them. Moreover, this call has now turned to America too. Therefore, we have already sent our missionary to America, so that he may call the attention of Americans towards Islam who seem to be ready to accept it. Then, the same Germany which was heavily inclined towards materialism, is now paying attention to spirituality. […]
Opposition of the Promised Messiahas
“One may say, ‘What is the big deal if some people joined Islam?’ However, the Promised Messiahas did not merely say that Islam would spread in the world; along with that, he also said that Islam would spread despite the fact that the world would oppose him. Hence, the world opposed him, and the ones who claimed to be believers in the majesty and greatness of Muhammadsa, also created obstacles. […] Numerous forms of oppression were inflicted upon him; stones were hurled at him [such as in Amritsar on 9 November 1905], and he endured various hardships. However, despite all this, he would say:
اے دل تو نیز خاطرِ ایناں نگاہ دار
كآخر كنند دعویٔ حُبِّ پیمبرم
“[‘O heart, you are required to show sympathy towards them, after all, they claim to have love for my Prophet [the Holy Prophet Muhammadsa.’] (Izala-e-Auham, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 3, p. 182)]
“It meant that, ‘Regardless of how badly they treat me despite the fact that I have stood up to propagate the teaching which they themselves claim to love, I remember to show sympathy to them because, after all, they claim to love that Prophet[sa] of whom I am a servant.’ […]
“In short, his own people opposed him and put hurdles in his way. His followers were thrown away from their homes, and hardships and troubles of every kind were faced by them, but still, these poor and weak people gradually progressed and offered their wealth for Islam’s propagation by sacrificing the needs of their own and their families. Despite all the opposition, they progressed. People wished for Islam to not spread, but God Almighty desired to make it shine, hence, it happened so. Thus, Islam spread in the world and enlightened it, and continues to do so, which is glorious proof of that person being the truthful and chosen one of God Almighty.
Success of the Promised Messiahas
“An American author writes that the people who make efforts in the world are of two kinds; those who make people follow them and those who represent others. For instance, if there is a country that lacks education and hence a person stands and declares the spread of education to be his objective, though in the beginning he would face opposition and some people would stand against him, he will succeed at last, because the prevailing circumstances and situation will force them to attain education. However, one’s success becomes very difficult if one proclaims such things that the circumstances do not compel people to accept, but rather, incite them against them. The Promised Messiahas was also one of those people, because when he proclaimed his objective, everyone became his opponent, and the circumstances of the era were completely against him. Though people believed that God Almighty had been speaking to His servants, they did not believe that there could be a person in this era with whom God Almighty spoke. In fact, the Promised Messiahas desired to instil this belief [in people], because he had come to reform the world, instead of leading people to the same path that was being followed by the material people. For this reason, his success is a glorious fact and a huge proof of his truthfulness, and it testifies that Islam is the true religion of God Almighty.
Promised Messiah’sas prophecy regarding the Tsar of Russia
“Then, he foretold that there would be a horrific war in the world, and during this, Tsar [Nicholas II] would have to endure a pitiable state. Thus, he stated:
زار بھی ہوگا تو ہوگا اس گھڑی با حالِ زار
“Meaning, ‘The Tsar himself will, at that hour, be in a pitiable state.’ [Barahin-e-Ahmadiyya, Part V, p. 218]
“Thus, this was exactly what happened. In this prophecy, he had laid out the whole situation of that war, to an extent that in some of his pamphlets, he presented a sketch of those [battle] fields where immensely horrific battles took place. That prophecy included the following couplet as well:
رات جو رکھتے تھے پوشاکیں برنگِ یاسمن
صبح کر دے گی انہیں مثلِ درختانِ چنار
“Meaning, ‘Those whose night garments were white as jasmine, Will wake up in the morning as if clad in red, like the poplar tree.’ [Ibid.]
“Therefore, the great war of France, in which Germany had to face a defeat, was fought in an area where the poplar trees are found abundantly. On one hand, the streams of blood were flowing, and on the other, the red leaves of poplar trees resembled the frozen blood, which made this situation even more terrifying.
“In short, he foretold that a great war would take place, and the Tsar’s situation would be horrifying. Thus, we witnessed after his [the Promised Messiahas] demise that a war took place, during which the Tsar had to endure the most horrifying and admonitory circumstances. Other European kings also had power within their countries; however, the Tsar was the most authoritative king. Hence, the words that he would use as his signatures, meant vicegerent of God. So, the Promised Messiahas was told [by God] that a great war would happen, during which a huge calamity would befall the Tsar of Russia, and that calamity would not be the one that would kill him suddenly, but rather, his condition would be extremely sorrowful, and he would die after enduring immensely painful circumstances. Now, let us see whether or not it actually happened.
“While the Tsar of Russia was ruling with full majesty and power, he came to know about a rebellion from [St Petersburg, on 22 January 1905, in the form of a demonstration by the workers and members of war-affected social classes.] He proceeded to that area and instructed the commander of the army to severely punish the rebels, and that he was on the way as well. However, while he had crossed only a few stations [of the Imperial Train], he received a telegram that the situation was very perilous. Thereafter, he instructed the commander to hand over the command to another officer. After crossing some more stations, he was informed that the situation had gotten even worse, and in response, he instructed [the commander] to show some leniency. After this, at the same station, some people approached him and asked him to surrender his authority.
“You all would have read about his situation, which transpired later. What more pitiable situation could he face than this, that his daughters were mistreated in front of his eyes, and then by killing him, they brought his pitiable situation to an extreme. These incidents are testifying like the daylight that the person who had foretold this all, had come from God, and had a great connection with God Almighty. Moreover, it is proven from this that Islam is the religion in which such a person has come whose heart is filled with the love of God Almighty and God Almighty manifests the proof of His love for him.” (Sadaqat-e-Islam Aur Zara’i Taraqqi-e-Islam, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 5, pp. 53-73)
Another prophecy for the truthfulness of Islam
After this, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra narrated the details of the Promised Messiah’sas prophecy about Ahmad Baig and Muhammadi Begum, and said:
“Thus, this prophecy is a glorious proof for Islam’s truthfulness, since it manifests that the God of Islam is not like a ‘machine’ – which is unable to distinguish [between right and wrong] – but rather, He is the Being Who does whatever He desires. Our opponents consider that this prophecy was not fulfilled; however, they are in a delusion. In reality, this prophecy has been fulfilled gloriously.
Survival of the victim of a rabid dog
“Now, let us ponder over some other matters which prove that whatever the Promised Messiahas has presented, proves the majesty and truthfulness of Islam, because God Almighty informed the Promised Messiahas about such matters which He does not tell anyone, except His beloved ones.
“Once a boy was bitten by a rabid dog and was sent to Kasauli for treatment, however, when he returned, he began to show signs of madness after some time. It is written in all books of medicine, and doctors are also in agreement, that there is no cure for the one who shows signs of madness as a result of being bitten by a [rabid] dog. When the news about the boy’s illness was conveyed to Kasauli, they responded:
“‘Sorry, nothing can be done for Abdul Karim.’
“Since this boy had come to attain religious education from a very far distance, the Promised Messiahas was motivated by the thought that it is the beginning [of the Jamaat] and opposition is happening from all sides. If this boy dies, it will cause a huge pain to the parents of this boy who was sent to a far distance to attain religious education, and the opponents will also make hue and cry. Thus, when he was said to be incurable, [Huzooras] prayed for him and he survived [The Philosophy of Divine Revelation, pp. 597-598]. Hence, that boy is still alive. To this day, there is no other example in the past thousand years of a person with such an ailment who has survived. He survived only through the prayers of the Promised Messiahas. This is a huge proof of the Power of God Almighty which has manifested through the Promised Messiahas.
The cure of a sick who was said to be incurable
“Similarly, thousands of other signs manifested, from which I will narrate another one as an example. A son of [Sardar] Nawab Muhammad Ali Khan Sahib[ra] – who is the maternal uncle of the current Nawab of Malerkotla, and I have been informed that he is here today – was ill due to typhoid fever. He was being treated by a traditional physician – Hazrat Maulvi Noor-ud-Deen Sahibra, who had been the special physician of the Maharaja of Jammu – and two other doctors. However, a situation arrived when the physicians became completely perplexed and frightened and said that ‘Now this child cannot survive.’ When the Promised Messiahas was informed about this, he said that he would pray for his health. He prayed, and God Almighty revealed to him that now he cannot survive. At this, the Promised Messiahas submitted [to God Almighty]: ‘O God, I intercede on his behalf.’ In response to this, [God Almighty] revealed:
مَنۡ ذَا الَّذِیۡ یَشۡفَعُ عِنۡدَہٗۤ اِلَّا بِاِذۡنِہٖ
“[‘Who is he that will intercede with Him except by His permission?’ (Surah al-Baqarah, Ch. 2: V. 256)]
“Regarding this episode, the Promised Messiahas states, ‘My condition became such that I lost consciousness and fell down.’ At that moment, he received the following revelation:
انك انت المجاز
“Meaning, ‘Permission is granted to you to intercede.’
“Upon this, the Promised Messiahas prayed, and he was told that the boy will be saved. Therefore, after half an hour, he [the child] got better and survived. He is in England now to attain education. [The Philosophy of Divine Revelation, p. 279]
Response to a question
[Upon this, a member of the audience humbly presented a written question to Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra. The question respectfully acknowledged that while the subject of the lecture revolved around the signs affirming the truthfulness of Islam, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra had begun to elucidate the signs and virtues of the Promised Messiahas. In response, Huzoorra graciously addressed the query as follows:]
“The first part of my lecture was about the arguments for the truthfulness of Islam, which I have already explained, and the second part is about the observation of the truthfulness of Islam, for which I am presenting the signs of the Promised Messiahas. One ought to remember that we do not believe in the Promised Messiahas for his person’s sake, but rather, we believe in him since, through his personage, the truthfulness of Islam has been proven. Hence, the signs of his truthfulness are, in fact, the signs of the Holy Prophet’ssa truthfulness, because Hazrat Mirza Sahibas presented himself as a servant of the Holy Prophetsa.
Islam’s truthfulness through a challenge to Bishop Lefroy
“Then, the Promised Messiahas issued a challenge to Bishop Lefroy [an Anglican missionary who became the Bishop of Lahore in 1899 and served there until 1913 when he was appointed as Lord Bishop of Calcutta] in order to prove the truthfulness of Islam through a prayer [duel]. He asked him to represent Christianity and he would represent Islam, and to pray to God that He may manifest a sign in favour of the truthful religion.
“[Hazrat Ahmadas engaged in challenges against numerous Christian missionaries and extended invitations for prayer duels to them. On one such occasion, he presented an alternative approach to ascertain the truth, which was that] both parties be given a few ailing people, and they were to pray for their cure. That religion was to be considered truthful, whose representative would cure the most number of ailed persons.
“Upon this, many prominent English newspapers published articles and stated, ‘Why do our priests, who are getting huge amounts of wages, not come to contest? This is the time to prove the truthfulness of Christianity.’ However, no one came to the contest. This was a very simple and befitting way to decide, however, no one accepted it, and it testifies to the point that the people of other religions feel that it is only Islam that can present the proof for its truthfulness, our religions are unable to do so.
The academic achievements of the Promised Messiahas
“From an academic and theological point of view, the Promised Messiahas wrote such great essays that even the opponents had to acknowledge their magnificence. Hence, a great Jalsa was held in Lahore [in December 1896], which was called ‘Mahotso’. In this regard, a condition was fixed for the representatives of all religions to present the hallmarks of their respective religions, and refrain from attacking any other religion. The Promised Messiahas wrote an essay for this [occasion] on Islam, and prophesied in advance through an ishtihar [pamphlet] that God had given glad tidings that his essay would be the best among all in that Jalsa [Majmu‘ah-e-Ishtiharat , Vol. 2, pp. 171-172]. Therefore, when his essay was read out at the Jalsa and the fixed time finished, all attendees, belonging to all religions, requested to extend the time, and a certain speaker gave his time to be used for [Huzoor’sas] essay. However, when the essay did not complete during the extended time either, the people asked [the speaker who was reading Huzoor’sas essay] to continue reading, but when it did not complete even during the second extended time, the attendees proposed to extend the Jalsa for another day. Thus, another day was given, allowing the essay to be read out completely. The people acknowledged that ‘whether or not we agree with the points narrated, but undoubtedly, this essay has been the best among all essays.’ The Civil and Military Gazette wrote an article in this regard as well.
Testimony of an opponent newspaper about the Promised Messiahas
“In short, the Promised Messiahas rendered such practical service to [prove] the truthfulness of Islam, which was not done by anyone else in this era, that even his enemies had to acknowledge it. For instance, on his demise, a well-known newspaper of this city, Vakil, which does not belong to our Community, published a very good article, in which it was accepted that [Hazrat] Mirza Sahib[as] has rendered great services for Islam and highlighted the superiority of Islam in front of other religions. This is a testimony about the Promised Messiahas from his opponent. Though there were several other newspapers that acknowledged his services, the Vakil article was the best one. It had stated that [Hazrat] Mirza Sahib’s[as] ‘pen was a marvel and his voice magic,’ and ‘his two fists generated the thunderous lightning.’ [Tarikh-e-Ahmadiyyat, Vol. 2, pp. 560-561]
“So, this was the academic miracle that was presented by the Promised Messiahas in favour of the truthfulness of Islam. Then look, while there are people who allege that ‘Mirza Sahib[as] did not propagate Islam’, on the other hand even the opponents are acknowledging that the teachings of Islam that have been presented by [Hazrat] Mirza Sahib[as] are of a great level. […]
“Thus, these incidents and arguments prove that Islam is a true religion and is superior to all other [religions] with respect to the arguments of its truthfulness. Moreover, it is proven from the observation that in this era, Islam is the only religion that could lead one to God Almighty.
Address to the audience
“Now, I request to all, whether they are Muslim or non-Muslim, that they are required to ponder over the truthfulness of Islam with love. There is no harm in advising others with love and affection. Only fighting amongst ourselves and speaking ill of each other is wrong. You ought to ponder over our religion with calmness, since we also ponder over your religions in the same manner. Is not the religion [Islam] that I have presented to you, able to establish the foundations of world peace? If Islam has this ability, which is the truth, then I wish to appeal to you all to accept it so that the distance which is present between us can be alleviated.
“Then, I ask those who are the followers of the Holy Prophetsa, but have not joined our Jamaat, ‘Is not this the time for us all to make full efforts to propagate Islam in the world? That person, who sacrificed everything for the sake of Islam’s propagation, lived in front of your eyes. Did you not ponder yet as to what his purpose was? Did he come to efface Islam, or did he strive day and night to serve Islam?’ […] We have witnessed that despite his ailments, at every moment of his life, he strived to propagate Islam in the world, and occupied himself at all times in this very endeavour. Can anyone who holds a love for the Holy Prophet Muhammadsa and Islam refrain from inclining towards him, be separated from him, or abandon him? Not at all. Did he point out any flaws in the Holy Quran? Did he alter Islamic teachings? Did he abandon Islam? If not, and his only mission was to propagate Islam in the world, then what is the reason for those who profess the same objective, to not come under his flag? They are required to ponder over it with calmness, and leave aside the discrimination and stubbornness, which are not attributes of just people. If they do so, they will certainly find that God sent him to establish a Jamaat that would propagate Islam in the world. Thus, Muslims need to pay attention to it and see what the situation of [the followers of] Islam is today.
“So, O my friends, O brothers, O my beloved ones, you ought to recognise the time. Do you not feel any mercy upon witnessing these circumstances? Do you not feel the need to leap forward to propagate Islam? You should reflect upon and bear in mind that God’s honour for Islam is fervently present at this moment in time. The opponents of Islam alleged that ‘Islam has spread through the power of the sword, otherwise, it had no distinctive feature to help its spread’, God Almighty declared that this [allegation] is incorrect, Islam had spread through the power of arguments. If even the servant of the Holy Prophet Muhammadsa could propagate Islam through arguments, why could his master not propagate it in this way? The Holy Prophetsa did not take up the sword initially, but rather, the opponents took this initiative first. The Holy Prophetsa took up the sword in self-defence. However, due to their unawareness of [the true facts of] those incidents, the people alleged that ‘Islam has spread through the power of the sword.’ In its response, the honour of God came into action and He appointed a servant of the Holy Prophetsa, so that he may propagate Islam through arguments.
“Thus, you should align your intentions with the will of God Almighty so that He may shower His blessings on you. Now, the only way for the Muslims to progress is for them to abandon their discrimination and stubbornness, and become true Muslims. God Almighty has put forward His ‘hand’ to help the Muslims and sent down a ‘rope’ from Him. Now, it is your duty to hold fast to it. You are called to be the ummah of Muhammadsa. If God had not provided His help upon your decline, and not provided any means for your progress, the people would have deduced that ‘Islam is not a beloved religion of God.’ However, since Islam is the beloved religion of God, in a situation when the Muslims had become weak and helpless in all aspects, it was essential that He help them, and He did so. He sent the Promised Messiahas as the means for the progress of the Muslims. It is your duty now to accept him and hold fast by the ‘rope’ that He has sent down. This is the only means for your progress and the only pathway for you to attain the [true] objective.
“Just recently, an Englishman, whose name was Faith, saw in a dream that there was a rock from which a person emerged who held a rope in his hands, and instructed him [Mr Faith] to grasp it. After this [dream], he met our missionaries in England, who showed him a picture of the Promised Messiahas, upon which he narrated his dream and said that it was this very person who held a rope in his hand and advised him to grasp it.
“So, O brethren, O my beloveds, you also ought to join this service which is being carried out by the mission of the Promised Messiahas, so you may be established on the living religion. If you will preach the arguments which have been presented by the Promised Messiahas in favour of Islam’s truthfulness, then no religion can ever stand in front of you. Thus, you are required to value this blessing of God Almighty, accept him, and go around the world holding the arguments taught by him, so that the call of لَا اِلٰہَ اِلَّا اللہُ مُحَمَّدٌ رَّسُوْلُ اللّٰہ [There is none worthy of worship except Allah, and Muhammad is His Messenger] may echo in all corners of the world.
“Now, I will conclude my lecture on the prayer that may Allah the Almighty enable the members of the Ahmadiyya [Muslim] Community, the people who have not yet joined it, the followers of other religions, and even those who do not believe in God, to accept the truthful religion, adopt the right path and follow it as well, and He may shower upon us the same grace which had been showered in the times of previous prophets. May God accept our prayers, Amin.” (Sadaqat-e-Islam Aur Zara’i Taraqqi-e-Islam, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 5, pp. 75-82)