15 March 2019
Men of Excellence; The Prophet’ssa Mosque
After reciting the Tashahud, Ta‘awuz, and Surah al-Fatihah, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih Vaa stated:
The first companion that I shall mention today is Hazrat Saibra bin Usman. He belonged to the Banu Jumah tribe. He was the son of Hazrat Usmanra bin Mazoon. His mother’s name was Khaulah bint Hakeem. He was from among the early Muslim.
Hazrat Saibra bin Usman participated in the second migration to Abyssinia along with his father and his uncle, Hazrat Qudamahra. After the migration to Medina, the Holy Prophetsa established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Saibra bin Usman and Harithahra bin Suraqah Ansari. He was among the companions who were appointed as the archers of the Holy Prophetsa. Hazrat Saib bin Usmanra participated in the Battles of Badr, Uhud and Khandaq and all other battles alongside the Holy Prophetsa. (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 2, pp. 396-397, Saib bin Usmanra, Dar-ul-Kutb Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003)(Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Saad, Vol. 3, pp. 306-307, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1990) (Al-Asaba Fi Tameez Al-Sahaba, Vol. 3, p. 20, Saib bin Usmanra, Dar-ul-Kutb Al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1995)
The Holy Prophetsa appointed him the Amir over Medina during the Battle of Buwaat. Regarding the Battle of Buwaat, which took place in 2 AH, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra has written:
“During the last days of this Rabiul Awwal or in the beginning of Rabiul Sani, the Holy Prophetsa once again received news of the Quraish. Upon this, the Holy Prophetsa took along a group of companions from among the Muhajireen and set out himself. He appointed Saib bin Usman bin Mazoonra as the Amir of Medina in his absence. However, the whereabouts of the Quraish could not be ascertained and upon reaching Buwaat, the Holy Prophetsa returned.” (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra, p. 329)
Buwaat is the name of a mountain situated near the tribe of Juhainah, located about 48 miles from Medina. (Subul Al-Huda, Vol. 4, p. 15, Baab Ghazwa-e-Bawaat, Dar-ul-Kutb Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1993)
Hazrat Saibra bin Usman participated in the Battle of Yamama. The Battle of Yamama took place in 12 AH during the caliphate of Hazrat Abu Bakr, in which Hazrat Saibra was struck by an arrow, which later led to his martyrdom. He was over the age of 30 at the time of his demise. (Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Saad, Vol. 3, p. 307, Saib bin Usmanra bin Mazoon, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1990)
The next companion to be mentioned is Hazrat Dhamrahra bin Amr Juhni. Hazrat Dhamrah’sra father’s name was Amr bin Adi. Some also report his father’s name as Bishr. He was a confederate of the tribe of Banu Tareef. However, according to some, he was a confederate of the tribe of Banu Saaidah, which was the tribe of Hazrat Saadra bin Ubaadah. (Confederate means that they had a mutual agreement to help each other, should a need arise.) Allamah Ibn Athir writes in Usdul Ghaba, “This is not a contradiction because Banu Tareef was a branch of Banu Saaidah.” Hazrat Dhamrahra participated in the battles of Badr and Uhud and was martyred during the Battle of Uhud. (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 3, pp. 60-61, Dhamrahra bin ‘Amr Juhni, Dar-ul-Kutb Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003)
The next companion to be mentioned is Hazrat Saadra bin Suhail. Hazrat Saadra was from among the Ansar. Some have reported his name as Saeed bin Suhail. Hazrat Saadra participated in the Battles of Badr and Uhud. He also had a daughter, whose name was Huzaila. This is all that is known about him. (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 2, p. 439, Saadra bin Suhail, Dar-ul-Kutb Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) (Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Saad, Vol. 3, p. 395, Saadra bin Suhail, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1990)
Next I will mention Hazrat Saadra bin Ubaid, who also participated in the Battle of Badr. Hazrat Saadra bin ‘Ubaid participated in all the battles alongside the Holy Prophetsa including the Battles of Badr, Uhud and Khandaq. His name has also been reported as Saeed. He was known by the title of Qari and also commonly known as Abu Zaid.
Hazrat Saadra bin Ubaid is counted amongst those four companions from the Ansar who collated the Holy Quran during the lifetime of the Holy Prophetsa. His son, Umair bin Saad was a governor in one of the regions of Syria during the caliphate of Hazrat Umarra. According to one narration, Hazrat Saadra bin Ubaid used to lead the prayers in the Quba mosque during the lifetime of the Holy Prophetsa. He was also appointed to lead the prayers during the caliphates of Hazrat Abu Bakrra and Hazrat Umarra. Hazrat Saadra bin Ubaid was martyred during the Battle of Qadisiyyah in 16 AH. He was sixty-four years of age at the time of his martyrdom.
Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Laila narrates that during the Battle of Jisr, which took place in 13 AH, the Muslims were defeated and suffered a great loss and Hazrat Saadra bin Ubaid had to retreat from the battle. Upon his return, Hazrat Umarra asked Hazrat Saadra bin Ubaid that if he had the desire to go for Jihad in Syria. For Muslims had been brutally attacked there and suffered greatly. If he agreed, he should go there as the enemy had become brazen due to the injury and bloodshed caused to the Muslims.
Hazrat Umarra further added that perhaps he would be able to heal the scar of humiliation owing to their defeat. This is because he had retreated from the Battle of Jisr and the Muslims had suffered a great loss. Hence, Hazrat Umarra said to him that if he wished to remove the scar of the humiliation and defeat, there was a battle taking place towards Syria as well. However, Hazrat Saadra replied that he would not go to any other land besides the land from where he had fled or returned unsuccessfully. Furthermore, he said, “I will only go after the enemy, who succeeded in what they set out to do against me.” In other words, he referred to the enemy that had become victorious in the battle against him. Hence, Hazrat Saadra bin Ubaid returned to Qadisiyyah and was martyred in combat.
Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Laila relates that Hazrat Saadra bin Ubaid addressed the people and said, “We will fight the enemy tomorrow and we shall be martyred. Therefore, you should neither wash the blood from our body, nor dress us in any other clothes for burial besides the clothes we are wearing.” (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 2, p. 445, Saadra bin Ubaid, Dar-ul-Kutb Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) (Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Saad, Vol. 3, p. 349, Saadra bin Ubaid, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1990) (Al-Asaba Fi Tameez Al-Sahaba, Vol. 3, p. 57, Saadra bin Ubaid, Dar-ul-Kutb Al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1995)
I mentioned a brief account in relation to the Battle of Jisr in one of the previous sermons, but I will share a few more details. As I have mentioned, the Battle of Jisr was fought in the 13 AH on the bank of the Euphrates between Muslims and Iranians. The commander-in-chief of the Muslims was Hazrat Abu Ubaid Saqfira, whereas the commander-in-chief of the Iranians was Bahman Jadhawiyah. The number of the Muslim army was 10,000, whereas the Iranian army numbered 30,000 and they also had 300 elephants.
During the course of the battle, the opposing armies met at the Euphrates, which proved to be an obstacle in the battle and thus fighting ceased between the two armies for some time. This continued to the extent that a Jisr – that is a bridge – was constructed over the Euphrates with both parties being in agreement to it. Due to this very bridge, it is known as the Battle of Jisr. Once the bridge was completed, Bahman Jadhawiyah sent a message to Hazrat Abu Ubaidra saying, “Will you cross the bridge and come to us or will you permit us to cross it?” Hazrat Abu Ubaidra was of the opinion that the Muslim army should cross the river and fight the opposing army. However, the leaders of the army, which included Hazrat Salitra, were against this opinion. Nevertheless, Hazrat Abu ‘Ubaidra crossed the Euphrates and attacked the Iranian army. The battle continued in this manner for a short period.
A short while later, Bahman Jadhawiyah saw his army scattered around. He saw that the Iranian army was retreating upon which, he ordered the elephants to be moved to the front. As a result of the elephants moving to the front, the rows of the Muslims were broken and became disorganised. The Muslim army began to scatter to different places. Hazrat Abu Ubaidra said to the Muslims, “O servants of Allah! Attack the elephants and cut off their trunks.” Having said this, Hazrat Abu Ubaidra himself advanced and attacked an elephant and cut off its trunk. Seeing this, the remaining army also quickly began to fight. They cut off the trunks and feet of several elephants and killed those that were riding on them. Coincidentally, Hazrat Abu Ubaidra came face to face with an elephant and he struck his sword and cut off its trunk. However, he was trampled under its feet and was martyred. Following the martyrdom of Hazrat Abu Ubaidra, seven men, one after the other, grabbed hold of the Islamic flag and each one was martyred during the battle. The eighth individual was Hazrat Musannara who grabbed hold of the Islamic flag and intended to launch another valiant attack. However, the rows of the Muslim army were unorganised and having seen seven of their leaders being martyred one after the other, people began to disperse in different directions and some jumped into the river. Hazrat Musannara and his companions continued to fight courageously. In the end, Hazrat Musannara was wounded and whilst continuing to battle against the enemy, he crossed the river and returned. Muslims suffered a great loss during this incident. Four thousand Muslim men were martyred, whereas six thousand Iranian soldiers were killed. (Tarikh ibn Khuldoon, translated by Hakim Ahmad Hussain Al-Abadi, Vol. 3, pp. 270-273, Dar-ul-Isha’at Karachi, 2003)
The reason why the Battle of Jisr occurred in the first place was because the Iranians launched continuous attacks against the Muslims. Therefore, in order to stop these attacks, permission was sought to fight.
The next companion to be mentioned is Hazrat Sahlra bin Atik. His name is also mentioned as Suhail. The name of his mother was Jamila bint Alqama. Hazrat Sahlra bin Atik participated in the second pledge at Aqabah along with seventy Ansar. He had the honour to participate in the battles of Badr and Uhud. (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 2, p. 578, S Sahlra bin ‘Atik, Dar-ul-Kutb Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) (Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Saad, Vol. 3, p. 387, Sahlra bin ‘Atik, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1990)
The name of the companion to be mentioned next is Hazrat Suhailra bin Rafey. Hazrat Suhailra bin Rafey belonged to the tribe of Banu Najjar. The piece of land on which Masjid Nabawi [mosque of the Prophetsa] was constructed was the property of Hazrat Suhailra and his brother, Hazrat Sahlra. The name of his mother was Zughaiba bint Sahl. Hazrat Suhailra participated in all the battles alongside the Holy Prophetsa, including the battles of Badr, Uhud and the Ditch. He passed away during the caliphate of Hazrat Umarra. (Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Saad, Vol. 3, p. 372, Suhail bin Rafi’, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1990)
With regard to the migration of the Holy Prophetsa to Medina, I will mention what Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra has written.
Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra writes:
“While the Prophetsa was in Medina, everybody longed to have the honour of being his host. As his camel passed through a lane, families would line up to receive him. With one voice they would say, ‘Here we are with our homes, our properties and our lives to receive you and to offer our protection to you. Come and live with us.’ Many would show greater zeal, go forward and hold the reins of the camel and insist on the Prophet dismounting in front of their doors and entering their houses. Politely, the Prophetsa would refuse saying, ‘Leave my camel alone. She is under the command of God; she will stop where God wants her to stop.’ Ultimately, it stopped on a site that belonged to orphans of the Banu Najjar tribe, which was situated to one side of Medina. The Holy Prophetsa dismounted and said, ‘It seems that this is where God wants us to stop.’ He made enquiries as to who the owner of that plot of land was. It was discovered that the land belonged to a few orphans. A trustee of the orphans came forward and said that the property belonged to such and such orphans, and offered the site for the use of the Holy Prophetsa. The Holy Prophetsa replied that he would not accept the offer unless he was allowed to pay. A price was settled, and the Prophetsa decided to build a mosque and some houses on it.” (Deebacha Tafsir-ul-Quran, Anwar-ul-Aloom, Vol. 20, p. 228)
Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra Sahib has mentioned more details about this account in Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin. He writes:
“Upon arriving in Medina, the first task was the construction of Masjid-e-Nabawi. The place where the camel of the Holy Prophetsa chose to rest was the property of two children from Medina named Sahlra and Suhailra, who lived in the guardianship of Hazrat As‘adra bin Zurarah. This was a vacant land (which was barren and uninhabited), on which a few date palms had been planted in one area. In another area, there were ruins, etc. The Holy Prophetsa selected this plot to construct the Masjid-e-Nabawi, and his own livings quarters. This plot of land was purchased for 10 Dinar. The surface was levelled and cleared of trees, after which the construction of Masjid-e-Nabawibegan.” (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra, p. 269)
According to another narration, the payment for this piece of land was made by Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra. (Sharah Zurqani, Vol. 2, p. 186, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1996)
Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra further writes:
“The surface was levelled and cleared of trees, after which the construction of Masjid-e-Nabawibegan. The Holy Prophetsa supplicated to Allah and laid the foundation stone himself. Just as in the construction of the mosque at Quba, the Companionsra worked as builders and labourers. The Holy Prophetsa would also participate at times. Occasionally, while lifting bricks, the Companions would recite the following couplet of Abdullahra bin Rawahah:
هَذَا الْحِمَالُ لَا حِمَالَ خَيْبَر، هَذَا أَبَرّ رَبّنَا وَأَطْهَرُ
‘This burden is not the burden of Khaibar’s commercial goods, which arrive loaded on the backs of animals; Rather, O our Lord! This is the burden of virtue and purity, which we bear for your pleasure.’
“At times, the Companions would recite the following couplet of Abdullahra bin Rawahah:
اَللّٰهُمّ اِنّ الْاَجْرَ اَجْرُ الْاٰخِرَه، فَارْحَمِ الْاَنْصَارَ وَالْمُهَاجِرَه
‘O Our Allah! True reward is merely that of the hereafter. By Your Grace, send down Mercy upon the Ansar and Muhajirin.’
“When the Companions would recite this couplet, at times, the Holy Prophetsa would also join in. In this manner, after a long period of hard work, the mosque was completed. The structure of the mosque was made from slabs and bricks, which were assembled between wooden pillars. (In those days, the way they would build a solid structure was to make columns from wood and in between they would place bricks and mud in order to strengthen it.) The roof was covered by trunks and branches of date palms. Trunks of date palms were placed inside the mosque to support the roof. Until the building of a pulpit was proposed, the Holy Prophetsa would lean upon one of these trunks when delivering his sermon. The floor of the mosque was unpaved, and since the roof would leak after heavy rainfall, the floor of the mosque would become muddy. As such, in light of this difficulty, later on a floor of gravel was paved. Initially, the direction of the mosque was towards Baitul-Maqdas, but after the alteration of the Qiblah, this orientation was changed. At that time, the height of the mosque was 10 feet, the length was 105 feet, and the width was 90 feet. Later on, however, this was extended. (This area of 105 feet by 90 feet can accommodate approximately fifteen–sixteen hundred worshippers.) To one corner of the mosque, a veranda was built, which was referred to as Suffah. This was for those destitute Muhajirinwho were homeless. These people would stay here, and were known as the Ashabus-Suffah. As such, they would remain in the company of the Holy Prophetsa day and night, perform worship and recite the Holy Quran. These people possessed no means of permanent subsistence. The Holy Prophetsa would take care of them personally and whenever the Holy Prophetsa would receive a gift or there was something available at home, he would especially separate their share. As a matter of fact, at times, the Holy Prophetsa would himself starve and send whatever was in his home to the Ashabus-Suffah. The Ansarwould also remain engaged in their hospitality as much as possible and would often attach clusters of dates within the mosque. However, despite all this, they lived in a state of adversity and would often reach a state of starvation. This state continued until some found work due to the expansion of Medina and others began receiving support from the national Baitul-Mal [treasury]. (When the overall conditions of the Muslims improved, they began to receive support.)
“A place of residence was constructed for the Holy Prophetsa adjacent to the mosque. His home was a small chamber of merely ten to fifteen feet. A single entrance led from this chamber to the mosque, from which the Holy Prophetsa would enter the mosque to lead the Salat, etc. When the number of his wives increased, additional living quarters were also built for the Holy Prophetsa alongside the first. The homes of various other companionsra were also built in close proximity of the mosque.
This was the Masjid-e-Nabawi, which was constructed in Medina. In that era, since there was no other public building where tasks of national importance could be performed, the mosque also served as the headquarters of administration. The assembly of the Holy Prophetsa would take place here. It was here that all types of consultation took place. Legal verdicts were passed from here. It was from here that injunctions would be issued forth. This was the official guesthouse. In short, it served as a centre of any task of national importance. If required, it would be used as a confinement for prisoners as well.”
When the prisoners saw how the Muslims worship and their mutual love and respect, many of them converted to Islam. Nonetheless, in this regard even Sir William Muir, an orientalist, has written the same. He has written many things against Islam and the Holy Prophetsa, however, regarding the mosque, Sir William Muir writes:
“But though rude in material, and comparatively insignificant in dimension, the Mosque of Mahomet is glorious in the history of Islam. Here the Prophet and his companions spent the greater portion of their time: here the daily service, with its oft-recurring prayers, was first publicly established: here the great congregation assembled every week, and trembled often while they listened to the orations of the Prophet and his messages from Heaven. Here he planned victories. From this spot he sent forth envoys to kings and emperors with summons to embrace Islam. Here he received embassies of contrite and believing tribes; and from hence issued commands which carried consternation amongst the rebellious to the very outskirts of the Peninsula. Hard by, in the room of Ayesha, he yielded up the ghost; and there he lies buried alongside his two Caliphs.”(Quoted in Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra, pp. 269-271)
Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra further states:
“This mosque and its adjoining chambers were constructed in a period of seven months, more or less. The Holy Prophetsa took up residence in his new home along with his wife Hazrat Saudahra. Various other Muhajirinalso acquired land from the Ansar and built homes in close proximity of the mosque. Those who could not obtain land near the mosque constructed their homes at a distance from the mosque. Others were fortunate enough to procure pre-constructed houses from the Ansar.” (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra, pp. 269-271)
Nonetheless, Hazrat Suhailra and his brother had the good fortune of offering their land for this great centre of Islam.
The next companion is Hazrat Saadra bin Khaithamah, who belonged to the Aus tribe. His mother’s name was Hind bint Aus. The Badri Companion, Abu Dhiyaah Numanra bin Thabit was his half-brother from his mother’s side. He was known by the titles of Abu Khaithamah and Abu Abdullah. The Holy Prophetsa established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Saadra bin Khaithamah and Hazrat Abu Salmahra bin Abdul Asad. (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 2, p. 429, Saadra bin Khaithamah, Dar-ul-Kutb Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) (Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Saad, Vol. 3, pp. 366-367, Saadra bin Khaithamah, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1990)
Hazrat Saadra was one of the twelve chiefs, appointed to supervise the Muslims of Medina during the second pledge at Aqabah. With regards to how the twelve chiefs were chosen and details about the incident, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra Sahib has written the following in Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin:
“The following year, that is, Dhul-Hijjah of 13 Nabawi, on the occasion of Hajj many hundreds of people from the Aus and the Khazraj came to Mecca. Among them, there were seventy such people who had either become Muslim or now desired to become Muslims, and came to Mecca in order to meet the Holy Prophetsa. Musabra bin Umair was also among them. Musab’sra mother was alive, and although she was an idolatress, she loved him very much. When she was informed of his coming, she sent word that, ‘First come and meet me, then go elsewhere.’ Musabra responded, ‘I have not yet met the Holy Prophetsa, I shall come to you once I have met him.’ Therefore, he presented himself before the Holy Prophetsa first and briefed him on key issues, then visited his mother. She was very upset. When she saw him, she began to weep and complain. Musabra said, ‘Mother! I tell you something wonderful which is very beneficial for you and shall put an end to every disagreement.’ She enquired, ‘What is that?’ Musabra quietly responded, ‘This, that you forsake idol worship and become a Muslim and believe in the Holy Prophetsa.’ She was a firm idolatress, and as soon as she heard this, she began to put up a commotion saying, ‘I swear by the stars that I shall never enter your religion,’ and signalled her relatives to capture Musabra, but he escaped.
“The Holy Prophetsa had been informed of the arrival of the Ansar by Musabra, and a few of them had also met the Holy Prophetsa personally. On this occasion, since a collective and private meeting was necessary, after the rites of Hajj, the middle dates of the month of Dhul-Hijjah were set for this purpose. On that day near the middle of the night, all these people were to come and meet the Holy Prophetsa in the same valley as last year, so that a private meeting could be held in peace and complete attention. The Holy Prophetsa ordered the Ansar that, ‘Do not come as a group, but arrive in pairs of one or two to the valley at the appointed time (lest they attract the attention of the enemy). Do not wake the sleeping and do not wait for the absent.’ Therefore, when the appointed date arrived during the night, when about a third of the night had passed, the Holy Prophetsa left his home. He took his uncle Abbas along with him, who was still an idolater, but loved the Holy Prophetsa and was a chieftain of the Hashim dynasty. Both of them reached this valley, and it was not long before the Ansar began to arrive in pairs of one and two. These were seventy souls from the Aus and the Khazraj. In the very beginning, Abbas (who had not yet accepted Islam) began the discourse saying:
‘O party of the Khazraj! Muhammadsa is revered and beloved within his dynasty. To this day, his dynasty has always remained responsible for his protection, and in times of danger has always come forward. But now, Muhammadsa intends to leave his homeland and reside with you. As such, if you wish to take him, you must protect him in every way, and will have to face every enemy. If you are prepared for this, then well and good, otherwise give a forthright answer, for true speech is good.’
“Al-Bara bin Ma‘rurra an aged and influential man from the tribe of the Ansar, said, ‘Abbas, we have heard your address, but we would like to hear the Holy Prophetsa from his own blessed tongue, that he may expound the responsibility which he wishes to put upon us.’
“Upon this, the Holy Prophetsa recited a few verses from the Holy Quran and described the teachings of Islam in a brief address. Whilst alluding to Huququllah [rights of Allah] and Huququl-Ibad [rights of fellow creation], the Holy Prophetsa said:
‘With regard to myself, all I desire is that, just as you protect your dear ones and your kindred, if need be, you deal with me in the same manner.’
“When the Holy Prophetsa had completed his address, as per the custom of Arabia, Al-Bara bin Ma‘rurra took the hand of the Holy Prophetsa into his own, and said, ‘O Messengersa of Allah! We swear by the God Who has sent you with truth that we shall protect your with our lives, for we have been raised under the shadows of swords and…’ he had not yet completed his statement, when Abul-Haitham bin Tayyihanra – who was among those who accepted Islam – interjected and said:
‘O Messengersa of Allah! We have had long relations with the Jews. By supporting you, they shall be severed. May it not happen that when Allah grants you victory, you leave us and return to your homeland, and we are left with nothing.’
“The Holy Prophetsa laughed and said, ‘Nay, Nay! That shall not happen. For your blood shall be mine, your friends shall be my friends and your enemies shall be my enemies.’ Upon this, Abbas bin Ubadah Ansarira looked to his companions and said, ‘O People! Do you understand the purpose of this treaty and pledge? This means that you should prepare yourselves to confront everyone, no matter who they may be, and should be ready to offer any sacrifice.’
“This means that they had to now be prepared to face every opponent of the Holy Prophetsa, and to offer every kind of sacrifice.
“The people said, ‘Yes, we understand, but O Messengersa of Allah! What shall we receive in exchange for this?’ The Holy Prophetsa said, ‘You will receive the paradise of Allah, which is the greatest of all His rewards.’
“Everyone said, ‘We agree to this bargain. O Messengersa of Allah, extend your hand.’
“The Holy Prophetsa brought forth his blessed hand, and this group of seventy devotees were sold at the hand of the Holy Prophetsa in a defensive pact. The name of this Bai‘at is ‘The Second Bai‘at at Aqabah’.
“When the Bai‘at had taken place, the Holy Prophetsa said: ‘Mosesas appointed twelve chiefs among his people who served as their supervisors and protectors. I also wish to appoint twelve chiefs from among you who shall be your supervisors and your protectors. They shall be like the disciples of Jesusas unto me, and they shall be answerable to me regarding the people. As such, propose the names of worthy men before me.’
“Therefore, twelve men were proposed, who the Holy Prophetsa approved, and appointing each as a supervisor to one tribe, he explained to them their duties. For some tribes, the Holy Prophetsa appointed two chiefs. In any case, the names of these twelve chiefs are as follows:
“As‘ad bin Zurarah, Usaid bin Al-Hudair, Abul-Haitham Malik bin Tayyihan, Saad bin Ubadah, Al-Bara bin Ma‘rur, Abdullah bin Rawahah, Ubadah bin Samit, Saad bin Ar-Rabi, Rafiey bin Malik, Abdullah bin Amr, Saad bin Khaithamah (The companion whose account is being narrated; he was appointed as one of the chiefs) and Mundhir bin Amr.” (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra, pp. 227-232)
During the migration to Medina, the Holy Prophetsa resided at the house of Hazrat Kulthumra bin Al Hidam in Quba. It is also narrated that the Holy Prophetsa stayed at the house of Hazrat Saadra bin Khaithamah. Likewise, it is narrated that although the Holy Prophetsa stayed at the house of Hazrat Kulthumra bin Al Hidam, when he left the house to go and sit amongst the people, it was at the house of Hazrat Saadra bin Khaithamah. (Al-Sira Al-Nabwiyya Li ibn Kathir, pp. 215-216, Kutub Al-Illmiyyah, Beirut, 2005)
After the first Bai‘at at Aqabah, the Holy Prophetsa sent Hazrat Musabra bin Umair for the moral and spiritual training of Medina’s new converts. Shortly after, Hazrat Musabra sought permission from the Holy Prophetsa to lead their own Friday prayers. Upon this, the Holy Prophetsa granted him permission and guided him on the matter. Accordingly, the first Friday prayer offered in Medina under these guidelines was at the house of Hazrat Saadra bin Khaithamah. (Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Saad, Vol. 3, pp. 87-88, Mus’abra Al-Khair Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1990).
This narration is from Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra.
Hazrat Saadra bin Khaithamah owned a well in Quba which was called “Al Ghars”. The Holy Prophetsa would regularly drink from that well and had said regarding the well, “This is from the fountains of Paradise and its water is excellent”. Meaning it is palatably sweet and cool. Upon the demise of the Holy Prophetsa, it was from this well’s water that his body was washed. Hazrat Alira narrates that the Holy Prophetsa had said “Upon my demise, take seven buckets of water from the well of Ghars to wash my body.”
Abu Jafar Muhammad bin Ali narrates that the Holy Prophet’ssa body was washed thrice. He was washed with water and leaves of tamarisk without removing his upper garment was still left on, i.e. his shirt was not taken off. Hazrat Alira, Hazrat Abbasra and Hazrat Fazlra washed the body of the Holy Prophetsa after his demise. According to some narrations, Hazrat Usamara bin Zaid, Hazrat Shukraanra and Hazrat Ausra bin Khawali also took part in washing the Holy Prophet’s blessed body. (Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Saad, Vol. 2, pp. 214, Zikr Ghusl-e-Rasool Allah, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1990) (Sunan ibn Maaja, Kitabul Janaiz, Baab Maa Jaa fi Ghusle Nabi, Hadith no. 1468) (Subul Al-Huda, Vol. 7, p. 229, Dar-ul-Kutb Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1993)
For many Muslim migrants escaping the persecution of the Quraish of Mecca, and upon reaching Medina, the first place of arrival would often be Hazrat Saadsa bin Khaithamah’s house – that is, all who would arrive after migration would temporarily rest at his house. Some of the known names of those people are as follows: Hazrat Hamzara, Hazrat Zaidra bin Haritha, Hazrat Abu Kabshara, who was a slave freed by the Holy Prophetsa, Hazrat Abdullahra bin Masud etc … When these companionsra migrated, upon reaching Medina, they stayed at the house of Hazrat Saadra bin Khaithamah. (Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Saad, Vol. 3, p. 6, 32, 36, 112, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1990)
Suleiman bin Abaan narrates that when the Holy Prophetsa set out for the Battle of Badr, both Hazrat Saadra bin Khaithamah and his father made intent of setting out with him. When it was brought to the attention of the Holy Prophetsa that both father and son – from a single household – were setting out together, he instructed, “Only one shall set out, and to decide who goes, they should cast lots.”
Hazrat Khaithamahra told his son Saadra, “As only one of us can go for battle, I advise you to stay at home with the women to protect and guard them.”
Hazrat Saadra replied,
“Had this been a matter related to something other than Paradise, I would surely have given precedence to your request. But I myself am desirous of martyrdom.”
Upon this, they both casted lots which came in favor of Hazrat Saad. He thus set out for battle alongside the Holy Prophetsa and was martyred in the Battle of Badr. (Al-Mustadrak Ala Al-Sahihain Li Hakim, Vol. 3, p. 209, Hadith no. 4866, Dar-ul-Kutb Al-Illmiyyah, 2002)
He was martyred at the hands of Amr bin Abd Wudd while according to another narration, it was by Tuaimah bin Adi. Hazrat Hamzara killed Tuaimah in the Battle of Badr whereas Hazrat Alira killed Amr bin Abd Wudd in the Battle of Khandaq.
According to one narration, Hazrat Alira said:
“On the day of Badr, when the sun had fully appeared, the Muslim and Meccan armies clashed, meaning that the battle had begun. I went in pursuit of a person and saw Saad bin Khaithamahra fighting an idolater atop a sand-dune, and the idolater martyred Hazrat Saadra. The idolater was on horseback and was wearing a chain armour. He got off the horse, for he had recognised me, but I had not recognised him yet. He invited me to engage in a battle with him, and I responded by pursuing him. When he came forward to attack me, I evaded his line of attack because he was coming from atop and this was disadvantageous to me – this is a technique in battle – I couldn’t afford him attacking me from above. When I was stepping aside for this reason, the idolater shouted, ‘O son of Abu Talib! Are you running away?’
“So I responded:
قَرِيْبٌ مَفَرّ ابنِ الشتراء
‘It is impossible for the son of Ishtira to run away!’”
Meaning that he could never run away. The term Ishtira had become proverbial among the Arabs. They say that history relates an incident of a thief who would come to steal from people, and when they attacked him, he would run away. However, his running away was only temporary, for he would strike again at the first opportunity. Thus, this gained fame as a proverb among the Arabs, i.e. you evade the enemy as a strategy to attack again.
Hazrat Alira further states, “When I planted my feet to fight, he approached me and attacked me with his sword which I blocked with my shield, and I swung my own sword at his shoulder with such force that it penetrated his armour. I was convinced that my sword would bring about his end when I noticed the silver glimmer of a blade in my periphery.
Hazrat Alira explains, “I was about to attack a second time, but immediately lowered my head when I noticed another sword coming towards me from behind. The second sword missed me and hit my opponent with such force that his head altogether became severed from his body along with its helmet.
Hazrat Alira goes on, “When I turned around to look, it was Hazrat Hamzara, saying ‘Let’s see how you defend yourself against this! I am the son of Abdul Muttalib!’” (Kitabul Mahazgi Li Al-Waqadi, pp. 92-93, Ghazwa-e-Badr, Alam-ul-Kutb, 1984) (Lughaatul Hadith, Vol. 2, p. 431, Ali Asif Printers, Lahore, 2005)
From this narration of Hazrat Alira it seems that Tuaimah bin Adi martyred Hazrat Saadra, and subsequently was killed there as well.
According to a narration, during the Battle of Badr, the Muslim army had two horses. On one of the horses, Hazrat Musabra bin Umair was sat and on the other was Hazrat Saadra bin Khaithamah. Hazrat Zubairra bin Awam and Hazrat Miqdadra bin Aswad also took turns to sit on them. (Dalail Al-Nabuwwah Li Al-Bahqi, Vol. 3, p. 110, Siyaq Qisatu Badr, Dar-ul-Kutb Al-Illmiyyah, Beirut, 1988)
There are various narrations in the accounts of history in relation to the number of horses the Muslims had during the Battle of Badr. According to Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra, during the Battle of Badr, the Muslims had seventy camels and two horses. (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra, p. 353)
However, other historical sources cite the number of horses as three and five as well. (Sharah Zurqani, Vol. 2, p. 260, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1996) (Al-Sira Al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 2, p. 205, Baab Zikr Maghazia, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2002)
Irrespective of the amount of provisions and the number of horses and camels the Muslim had, it was incomparable to the provisions and number of horses which were in the possession of the enemy. When the Muslims were attacked and the Muslims were compelled in engaging into a battle, the non-believers came with intention to completely obliterate Islam.
At that moment, the Muslims did not look at their provisions and horses, in fact they had a fervent passion to offer sacrifice in the way of God as is evident from their response. They did not have any worldly desire at all, rather it was simply the desire to offer their lives for the sake of God Almighty. It was for this reason that a son said to his father that he could not give him precedence. In any case, it was a heartfelt passion [to offer a sacrifice] which God Almighty accepted and granted them victory. May God Almighty continue to elevate the station of the companionsra.
(Originally published in Al Fazl International, 5 April 2019, pp. 5-9. Translated by The Review of Religions)