Why does the Basmala in Surah al-Fatihah not include the Divine attributes of Tawhid (al-Ahad, al-Wahid)?


    Someone from the USA wrote to Hazrat Amirul Momineen, Khalifatul Masih Vaa, asking, “Surah al-Fatiha begins with ‘بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ’ [In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful.], which mentions God Almighty’s personal name, Allah, and two of His attributes. However, why aren’t the attributes of ‘al-Ahad’ [Unique] or ‘al-Wahid’ [One] mentioned therein, given that the purpose of the Holy Quran’s teaching is to establish the Oneness of God Almighty?”

    Huzoor-e-Anwaraa, in his letter dated 31 August 2022, provided the following reply to this query:

    “The distinctive feature of Islam is the manner in which it introduces humankind to the concept of Tawhid (Oneness of God), unlike any other religion. The personal name of God Almighty, ‘Allah’, is the root of Tawhid, encompassing within itself all the divine attributes. Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the Promised Messiahas, states regarding this matter:

    “‘In the terminology of the Quran, ‘Allah’ is the name of the Being in Whom all the attributes of beauty and benevolence have reached their pinnacle of perfection, and there is no flaw in His entity. The Holy Quran attributes all divine qualities exclusively to the name of Allah, indicating that the name ‘Allah’ is truly realised when all perfect attributes are found within it.’ (Ayyam-us-Sulh, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 14, p. 247)

    “Thus, the Holy Quran commences with the personal name of God Almighty, ‘Allah’, in the most beautiful manner, incorporating the attribute of His Unity within it. The Promised Messiahas further states:

    “‘‘Allah’ is translated as that God, or that Being Who is beyond perception, transcending all intellect, beyond the beyond, and intricately unfathomable and subtle, towards Whom, everything turns in a state of worshipful hue, that is, in a state of existential annihilation—either a metaphorical annihilation in Divine love, which is a spiritual state, or an actual annihilation, which is death. (Tuhfa-e-Golarwiyya, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 17, p. 268)

    “Thus, the word ‘Allah’ itself articulates this notion, proclaiming God Almighty’s Oneness, His uniqueness as the Sole Deity, and declaring that no one is a partner in His Divinity.

    “Furthermore, it is not imperative for every verse of the Holy Quran to explicitly mention the attribute of God’s Unity. The Holy Quran is a complete book that, along with establishing the Oneness of God Almighty, also extensively elucidates the other attributes of the True God for its followers. Otherwise, this objection would also apply to the last two chapters of the Quran, where only the attributes of Lord [Rab], Master [Malik], and God [Ilah] are mentioned, and the attributes of the Unique [al-Ahad] or the One [al-Wahid] are not explicitly stated.

    “The Holy Quran is a complete heavenly book which, alongside the apt elucidation of all attributes of God Almighty, through its teachings, impact, reformative power, and spiritual essence, rescues its true adherents from every sin and corrupt life, bestowing upon them a life of purity. Additionally, the Holy Quran imparts perfect insight for the recognition of God Almighty, nurtures a relationship of love with Him, and guides the seeker of God to their ultimate destination.”

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