10 June 2022
Men of Excellence: Hazrat Abu Bakrra
After reciting the tashahhud, ta‘awuz and Surah al-Fatihah, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih Vaa said:
With regard to the accounts of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra, the Battle of Yamamah was being mentioned. Further details in this regard are as follows.
Hazrat Abu Saeed Khudrira relates that he heard Abbad bin Bishr say, “O Abu Saeed! When we finished [the military expedition] from Buzakhah, I saw in a dream that night as if the heavens had opened up and they were then closed upon me. This implies martyrdom.” Abu Saeedra said, “Insha-Allah [God willing]! Whatever happens will be for the best.” He says, “I observed him on the day of [the Battle of] Yamamah. He was calling upon the Ansar to come towards him. Subsequently, 400 men returned to him. Among these men, Bara bin Malik, Abu Dujanah and Abbad bin Bishr were at the forefront and they continued to advance until they reached the gate of the garden. I looked at Abbad bin Bishr after he had been martyred. There were many sword marks on his face and I was only able to recognise him from a particular mark on his body.”
There are also accounts in relation to Hazrat Umm-e-Amarahra. Umm-e-Amarahra was one of the extremely courageous female companions in the history of Islam. Her name was Nusaybah bint Kaab. She also participated in the Battle of Uhud and fought with utmost fearlessness. For as long as the Muslims were victorious, she continued to fill the water-skins and handed them to the people to drink from. However, when they faced defeat, she appeared before the Holy Prophetsa and was fully clad in armour. When the disbelievers advanced towards the Holy Prophetsa, she would stop them with her sword and arrows. At a later stage, the Holy Prophetsa himself said, “During the Battle of Uhud, I saw her fight on every flank.”
When Ibn Qami‘ah had reached the Holy Prophetsa, Umm-e-Amarahra came forward and stopped him. He struck her, which left Hazrat Umm-e-Amarahra with a deep wound on her shoulder. She also wielded her sword. However, it proved ineffective as he was wearing two layers of armour.
Nevertheless, this is the status of Umm-e-Amarahra in history. She relates that her son, Abdullah, killed Musailimah Kazzab. On that day, Hazrat Umm-e-Amarahra was also participating in the Battle of Yamamah and her arm was severed during the battle. The reason for Hazrat Umm-e-Amarahra participating in this battle has been stated as follows. When the Holy Prophetsa passed away, her son, Habeeb bin Zaidra, was in Oman along with Hazrat Amrra bin al-Aas. When this news reached Amrra, they returned from Oman and crossed paths with Musailimah on the way. Hazrat Amrra had already gone ahead and Habeebra bin Zaid and Abdullah bin Wahab were following behind. Musailimah captured both of them and said, “Do you bear witness that I am the messenger of Allah?” Abdullah bin Wahab replied, “I do!” Upon this, Musailimah instructed for him to be shackled with iron chains as he did not believe him and thought that he might have said so in order to save his life. Nevertheless, Musailimah then said to Habeebra bin Zaid, “Do you bear witness that I am the messenger of Allah?” He replied, “I cannot hear you!” Upon this, he said, “Do you bear witness that Muhammad[sa] is the Messenger of Allah?” He replied, “I do!”
Musailimah issued an order, resulting in him being dismembered, and whenever it was asked of him, “Do you testify that I am the messenger of Allah?” he would reply, “I cannot hear this.” And whenever he would be asked, “Do you testify that Muhammad[sa] is the Messenger of Allah?” he would reply, “Yes.” This continued until he cut his limbs off one by one. His arms were cut off at the shoulders. His legs were cut off above his knees, and then he was lit on fire. During this entire ordeal, neither did he deviate from his position, nor did Musailimah stop his cruelty until [Hazrat Habeebra bin Zaid] was martyred in the fire.
According to another narration, when Hazrat Habeebra took the letter to Musailimah, he killed him there and then by cutting off his limbs one by one and had him thrown in the fire. When news reached Hazrat Umm-e-Amarahra of her son’s martyrdom she swore that she would face Musailimah herself and either kill him herself, or be martyred in the way of Allah.
When Hazrat Khalidra bin Walid prepared the army to go to Yamamah, Hazrat Umm-e-Amarahra went to Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra requesting permission to participate in the battle. Hazrat Abu Bakrra said, “Nothing can stop a woman like you from going to participate in the battle. Go forth in the name of Allah.” Another of her sons, Abdullah, also took part in this battle. She narrates:
“When we reached Yamamah, a fierce battle took place. The Ansar called for help and the other Muslims arrived to help. When we reached the gate of the garden, there was a rush at the gate of the garden, whilst our enemy was gathered to one side of the garden, where Musailimah was. We forced our way in and fought them for a while. By Allah, I have not witnessed anyone defend themselves to the extent that they did. I then sought to search and find Musailimah, the enemy of God. I swore to Allah that if I saw him I would not let him go. Either I would kill him or I would myself be killed. The people were fighting one another and their swords clashed, as though they had all become deaf and all they could hear was the sound of the swords striking. And then, I saw the enemy of Allah and I launched an attack upon him. One person came before me and struck my hand and cut it off. By Allah, I did not hesitate at all and continued till I could reach that wretched man and I saw him lying on the floor. I also saw my son Abdullah there as well, who had killed him.”
In another narration of Hazrat Umm-e-Amarahra it is also mentioned, “My son Abdullah was cleaning his sword with his cloth when I asked him if he had killed Musailimah. He answered, ‘Yes, mother.’ I performed a prostration of gratitude to Allah.” Hazrat Umm-e-Amarahra says, “Allah had cut the root of the enemy. When the battle ended and I had returned home, Hazrat Khalidra bin Walid brought an Arab physician to me. He treated me with some boiling oil. By Allah, this treatment was more painful for me than having my hand severed. Hazrat Khalidra took great care of me and treated us very well. He always had our rights in mind, and tended to the instruction of the Holy Prophetsa in relation to us.”
Abbad says, “O my grandmother, were there a lot of people wounded during the battle of Yamamah? She replied, “Yes, my child. The enemy of Allah was killed but the Muslims were all wounded. I witnessed both my brothers wounded to such an extent that they seemed to have no sign of life left in them. The people remained in Yamamah for fifteen days. The battle had ended, yet very few among the Ansar and Muhajirin were able to perform the prayer with Hazrat Khalidra bin Walid.”
Hazrat Umm-e-Amarahra says, “I know that on that day, Banu Tayy had been put through a great trial. On that day, I heard Adi bin Hatim loudly proclaim, ‘Be patient, be patient! May my parents be sacrificed for you.’ My son Zaid also fought very bravely that day.”
In another narration, it is mentioned that Hazrat Umm-e-Amarahra was wounded during the Battle of Yamamah. Aside from one of her hands being severed, she had 11 wounds inflicted by swords and spears. Hazrat Abu Bakrra would regularly come to ask about her wellbeing.
Kaab bin Ujrah fought fiercely that day. That day, the people faced a great loss and fled from defeat to the extent that they left the contingent at the rear of the army behind them. Kaab announced, “O Ansar, O Ansar, come to the aid of Allah and the Prophetsa!” Whilst announcing this, he came to Muhakkim bin Tufail. Muhakkim struck him and severed his left hand. By Allah, Kaab was not at all staggered by this and continued to fight with his right hand whilst his left hand bled out – up until the point he reached the garden and entered it. Whilst calling out to Aus, Hajib bin Zaid said, “O Ashhal!” Upon this, Thabit said, “Instead, say ‘O Ansar!’ for they are my army as they are yours.” Thus, he said, “O Ansar, O Ansar”. Upon this, Banu Hanifah launched an attack against them. The people scattered, and Hajib bin Zaid killed two opponents and was then martyred himself. His post was then taken up by Umair bin Aus. He was also attacked by the enemy and was martyred.
Then, with regard to Abu Aqil it is narrated that “Abu Aqil was a confederate of the Ansar and on the day of Yamamah, he was the first to come forward for the battle. He was hit with an arrow that pierced through his shoulder and reached his heart. He grabbed the arrow and pulled it out, but he was weakened by the wound. He heard Ma‘an bin Adi say, ‘O Ansar, regroup to attack the enemy!’”
Amr reports, “Abu Aqil stood up to go towards his people. Upon this, I asked, ‘Abu Aqil, what do you intend to do now? You no longer have the strength for battle and have become very weak.’ He replied, ‘The caller has summoned us and called out my name.’ I said, ‘They have only called out to the Ansar, which does not include those who are wounded.’ Abu Aqil replied, ‘I am from among the Ansar and I will surely hearken to this call, even if others show weakness.’”
Ibn Umar reports, “Abu Aqil rose up with great strength, took up a sword in his right hand and called out, ‘O Ansar! Regroup and attack as you did on the day of Hunain!’ Everyone gathered and formed a barrier for the Muslims before the enemy, to the extent that they were able to push the enemy back into the garden. The two forces converged, in other words, after entering [the garden] a fierce battle ensued and swords began to clash. I saw Abu Aqil, whose wounded arm was severed from his shoulder and fell onto the ground. He was wounded 14 times, due to which he was martyred.”
Ibn Umar relates, “When I came towards Abu Aqil, he was lying on the ground breathing his last. I called him and said, ‘O Abu Aqil.’ With stammering speech, he replied, ‘I am here.’ He then asked, ‘Who was defeated?’ I replied in a loud voice, ‘Rejoice, for Musailimah, the enemy of Allah, has perished.’ Whilst raising his finger toward the sky, Abu Aqil said, ‘All praise is for Allah’ and then he passed away.” Ibn Umar relates, “I recounted this whole incident to my father, Hazrat Umarra, and he said, ‘May Allah have mercy on Him. He always aspired for martyrdom, and to my knowledge, he was amongst a select few of the companions of the Holy Prophetsa, who accepted Islam at the outset.’”
One day, Muja‘ah bin Murarah – the chieftain of Banu Hanifah and whom I’ve spoken about previously – said, “Ma‘an bin Adi used to come to me during the lifetime of the Holy Prophetsa owing to our old friendship.” Muja‘ah continues, “When I came to Hazrat Abu Bakrra amongst a caravan after the conclusion of the battle of Yamamah, Hazrat Abu Bakrra was visiting the graves of the martyrs with his companions. I also accompanied him, during which time Hazrat Abu Bakrra and his companions visited the graves of 70 companions. I humbly submitted, ‘O Khalifa of the Messengersa, during the battle of Yamamah, there was no one amongst the companions who stood more staunchly before the barrage of swords than him, nor did I see anyone who attacked more fiercely than he did. I saw this person – may Allah have mercy on him – and he was my friend. Hazrat Abu Bakrra (recognising who it was) asked, ‘Was it Ma‘an bin Adi?’ I replied in the affirmative. Hazrat Abu Bakrra was familiar with the friendship I shared with him. Hazrat Abu Bakrra then said, ‘May Allah have mercy on him. You have made mention of a righteous person.’ I replied, ‘O Khalifa of the Messengersa, it is as though I can still see him before my very eyes as I was tied up in the tent of Khalid bin Walid. The Muslims were losing their foothold to the extent that I thought they would not be able to regain their footing, and this is something I could not bear.’ Hazrat Abu Bakrra said, ‘By God, was it actually unbearable for you?’” [He was asked this] because he had become an apostate and had thus been imprisoned. Nonetheless, he continues, “I replied, ‘I swear by Allah that I could not accept that.’ Hazrat Abu Bakrra replied, ‘I praise Allah for that.’”
Muja‘ah continues, “I saw Ma‘an bin Adi who had tied a red cloth on his head and was returning to attack. His sword was placed on his shoulder, dripping with blood. He was calling out, ‘O Ansar, attack with all your strength!’”
Muja‘ah continues, “The Ansar regrouped and attacked, and the attack was so severe that the enemy lost their foothold. I was making rounds with Khalid bin Walid. I was able to identify those killed amongst the Banu Hanifah and also saw the Ansar who were martyred and had fallen. Upon hearing this, Hazrat Abu Bakrra began to cry until his beard became soaked with tears.”
Hazrat Abu Saeed Khudrira relates, “When it was time for Zuhr prayer, I entered the garden where a severe battle was underway. Hazrat Khalidra bin Walid summoned the caller for prayer, who gave the call to prayer on the garden wall. The people were occupied in battle which did not end until after the Asr prayer. Hazrat Khalidra bin Walid then led us in Zuhr and Asr prayers. He then sent the water bearers toward those who had been killed. I also accompanied them in making rounds. I passed by Abu Aqil who had been inflicted with 15 wounds. He asked me for water and I gave him some water to drink, but the water flowed out from his wounds and he embraced martyrdom. I passed by Bishar bin Abdillah who was sitting and asked me for water. I gave him water and he also embraced martyrdom.”
Mahmud bin Labid narrates, “When Hazrat Khalidra killed the people of Yamamah, many Muslims were also martyred amongst whom were a number of companions of the Holy Prophetsa. The majority of Muslims who survived were severely wounded.” (Al-Iktifa bima Tadmanuh min Maghazi Rasul Allah wa al-Thalathah al-Khulafa, Vol. 2, Ch. 1 [Beirut, Lebanon: Alam al-Kutub, 1997], p. 57) (Saeed Ansari, Siyar al-Sahabiyyat [Lahore, Pakistan: Mushtaq Book Corner], p. 122) (Muhammad al-Salabi, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiqra Shakhsiyyat aur Karname [Khan Garh, Pakistan: Furqan Trust], p. 349)
When Hazrat Khalidra bin Walid got news of the death of Musailimah, he took Muja‘ah along with him who was chained up so he could identify Musailimah. He continued to search for Musailimah amongst the dead but could not find him there. When he entered the garden, he saw a man of short height and yellowish complexion and with a flat nose. Muja‘ah said, “This is Musailimah, the man you have now got rid of.” Upon this, Hazrat Khalidra said, “This is the man who has inflicted all of this on you.”
Since Muja‘ah was imprisoned and was also a representative for the Banu Hanifah and their leader, for this reason, he wanted to save them. Most of the men had died, but to save the people inside the fort, he devised a scheme. He lied and entered into a peace treaty with Hazrat Khalidra. He said to Hazrat Khalidra bin Walid, “The people that came out to fight against you did so in haste, whereas the fort is full of warriors.” Hazrat Khalidra bin Walid said, “May you be ruined for saying such a thing!” Upon this, Muja‘ah said, “By God! What I am saying is absolutely correct. Hence, enter into this treaty with me on behalf of my people.” He said all of this deceitfully, as will be explained later on. Having witnessed the losses sustained by the Muslims in this perilous battle and not wanting more harm to befall the Muslims, Hazrat Khalidra deemed this to be appropriate; especially since the chief of the Banu Hanifah and actual leader of the rebellion [i.e. Musailimah] and his comrades had been killed. And so, Hazrat Khalidra agreed to the peace treaty. Having sought the guarantee for this peace treaty from Hazrat Khalidra, Muja‘ah said that he would go and speak with them [inside the fort], and so he went to them. However, Muja‘ah knew very well that aside from women, children and the extremely elderly or frail, there was nobody inside the fort. He got them to wear chainmail and said to the women that until he returned they should ascend the walls of the fort. He then returned to Hazrat Khalidra and said that they did not accept the terms of the treaty he had mentioned. When Hazrat Khalidra looked towards the fort, he saw that it was full of men. Muja‘ah had made sure the women were clad in chainmail and positioned them there. The Muslims had sustained heavy losses in the battle and it had become prolonged. For this reason, the Muslims wished to seal the victory and return, because they did not know what was going to happen next. For this reason, Hazrat Khalidra agreed to make peace on lighter terms; gold, silver, weapons and half of the prisoners. It is also mentioned that he agreed on the condition of one-fourth [of the property of Banu Hanifah].
When the doors of the fort were opened, there was nobody in there aside from women, children and the frail. Hazrat Khalidra said to Muja‘ah, “May you be ruined, you have deceived me.” Muja‘ah replied, “They are my tribesmen; it was vital that I save them. Besides this, what else could I have done?” After this, Hazrat Khalidra received a letter from Hazrat Abu Bakrra which said to kill every adolescent [male]. However, this letter was received when Hazrat Khalidra had already agreed to the treaty. For this reason, he fulfilled his pledge and did not act dishonestly as he had already agreed to the terms. (Ibn Athir, Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2006], pp. 222-223)
Thus, Hazrat Khalidra bin Walid sent a letter to Hazrat Abu Bakrra explaining the conditions of the Muslims and the reason for entering into a treaty. Upon reading the letter, Hazrat Abu Bakrra was pleased and content.
When Hazrat Khalidra finished the treaty negotiations, he issued orders with regards to the fort and appointed men for [guarding] it. Muja‘ah swore in the name of Allah that out of what had been agreed in the treaty nothing would be kept hidden from Hazrat Khalidra, and if anything that was hidden was known to anyone, they would inform Hazrat Khalidra about it. Subsequently, the doors of the fort were opened; from inside the fort, they acquired a vast number of weapons, which Hazrat Khalidra gathered together in one place. Similarly, the Dinars and Dirhams that were found inside were also gathered in a separate place; as were the chainmail. Then the prisoners were brought outside and divided in two sections. Lots were drawn with regards to the spoils of war; the chainmail, shackles, gold and silver were weighed and a khumus [one fifth] was separated from it. One-fourth from the khumus was distributed amongst the people; horse riders were given two shares and one share was assigned to the owners of the horses. Khumus was set aside from all of these and the entire khumus was sent to Hazrat Abu Bakrra. (Al-Iktifa bima Tadmanuh min Maghazi Rasul Allah wa al-Thalathah al-Khulafa, Vol. 2, Ch. 1 [Beirut, Lebanon: Alam al-Kutub, 1997], pp. 70-71)
After this, all of the Banu Hanifah gathered together to pledge allegiance and declare that they had severed all ties to Musailimah’s prophethood. All of them were brought to Hazrat Khalid bin Walidra, where they pledged allegiance and announced that they had entered Islam once again. Hazrat Khalidra bin Walid sent a delegation from among them to Hazrat Abu Bakrra in Medina. When they reached Hazrat Abu Bakrra, he expressed astonishment – Hazrat Abu Bakrra expressed great astonishment as to how could they have been deceived by the trap of Musailimah and strayed away from the right path. They replied, “O Khalifa of the Messengersa! You are fully aware of everything. Neither could Musailimah benefit himself, nor did his relatives and tribe benefit anything from him.” (Muhammad Husain Haikal, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra, p. 206)
There is mention of a dream of Hazrat Abu Bakrra. When Hazrat Abu Bakrra sent Hazrat Khalidra to Yamamah, he saw a dream that he was presented dates from Hajr – the name of a settlement. Hazrat Abu Bakrra ate one of the dates and found that it was in fact a date stone that looked like a date – it was not a date; rather, it was a hard date stone. Hazrat Abu Bakrra chewed it for a while and then threw it out. Hazrat Abu Bakrra interpreted this dream to mean that Hazrat Khalidra would face grave opposition from the people of Yamamah, but Allah will certainly grant victory at his hands. (Al-Iktifa bima Tadmanuh min Maghazi Rasul Allah wa al-Thalathah al-Khulafa, Vol. 2, Ch. 1 [Beirut, Lebanon: Alam al-Kutub, 1997], p. 72)
Hazrat Abu Bakrra would eagerly await news from the Battle of Yamamah and as soon as a messenger would arrive from Hazrat Khalidra, he would immediately ask for the information. One day, Hazrat Abu Bakrra left in the afternoon in the scorching heat; he would usually go to Sarar, which was located at a distance of three miles from Medina. Accompanying him were Hazrat Umarra, Hazrat Saeed bin Zaidra, Hazrat Talha bin Ubaidillahra and a group of the Muhajirin and the Ansar. Hazrat Abu Bakrra met with Abu Khaithamah Najjari, who had been sent by Hazrat Khalidra. When Hazrat Abu Bakrra saw him, he said, “O Abu Khaithamah! What news do you bring?” He replied, “O Khalifa of the Messengersa! I bring good news; Allah has granted us victory in Yamamah.” The narrator states that Hazrat Abu Bakrra went into prostration. Abu Khaithamah said, “Khalidra has sent a letter for you.” Hazrat Abu Bakrra and the other companions glorified Allah, after which Hazrat Abu Bakrra said, “Tell me about the events of the battle.” Abu Khaithamah began informing him of what Khalidra did and how he arranged his army, as well as the injuries suffered by the Muslims and which of them were martyred. Hazrat Abu Bakrra began reciting:
إِنَّا لِلّٰهِ وَإِنَّآ إِلَيۡهِ رَاجِعُوْنَ
[“Surely, to Allah we belong to Him shall we return”] and praying for them to be bestowed with mercy. Abu Khaithamah further said, “O Khalifa of the Messengersa! We are bedouins, they were beating us and treating us in a manner which displeased us greatly. After this, Allah the Almighty granted us victory.” Hazrat Abu Bakrra said, “I had seen a dream which upset me greatly. A thought crossed my mind that Khalidra would certainly come up against a formidable enemy. If only Khalidra had not entered into a treaty with them and kept them on the edge of his blade. After the [Muslim] martyrs, what right do the people of Yamamah have to live? The comrades of Musailimah Kazzab will remain in trial owing to him until the Day of Judgement, unless Allah saves them.” Subsequently, a delegation of the people of Yamamah and Hazrat Khalidra came to see Hazrat Abu Bakrra. (Al-Iktifa bima Tadmanuh min Maghazi Rasul Allah wa al-Thalathah al-Khulafa, Vol. 2, Ch. 1 [Beirut, Lebanon: Alam al-Kutub, 1997], pp. 72-73) (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy, 2004], p. 172)
With regard to the number of people who died in this battle, it is said that approximately 10,000 apostates were killed. According to another narration, 21,000 has also been reported. On the other hand, five to six hundred Muslims were martyred. According to various other narrations, the number of Muslims who were martyred during the Battle of Yamamah has been reported as 700, 1,200 and also 1,700. (Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, Vol. 3, Ch. 6 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2001] p. 321) (Imam Abu al-Hasan Ahmad bin Yahya al-Buladhari, Futuh al-Buldan [Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2000], p. 63)
According to one narration, amongst those who were martyred, more than 700 were huffaz of the Quran. (Badr al-Din Mahmud Ibn Ahmad Aini, Umdat al-Qari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Fada’il al-Quran, Bab Jam‘ al-Quran, Vol. 20 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2001], p. 23)
Among those who were martyred were some prominent companions and huffaz of the Quran, who possessed a very lofty status amongst the Muslims and their martyrdom was a huge tragedy. However, it was the martyrdom of these huffaz of the Quran which then led to the compilation of the Quran [into a single book form].
Some of the well-known companions who were amongst the martyrs are as follows:
Hazrat Zaidra bin Khattab, Hazrat Abu Huzayfa bin Utbahra bin Rabi‘ah, Hazrat Salim, the freed slave of Abu Huzayfara, Hazrat Khalidra bin Usaid, Hazrat Hakamra bin Saeed, Hazrat Tufailra bin Amr Dausi, Hazrat Saibra bin Al-Awam (the brother of Hazrat Zubairra bin al-Awam), Hazrat Abdullahra bin Harith bin Qais, Hazrat Abbadra bin Harith, Hazrat Abbadra bin Bishr, Hazrat Malikra bin Aus, Hazrat Suraqahra bin Kaab, Hazrat Ma‘anra bin Adi, Hazrat Thabitra bin Qais bin Shammas who was the orator appointed by the Holy Prophetsa, Hazrat Abu Dujanahra, Hazrat Abdullahra bin Abdillah (the sincere and devoted companion and who was the son of Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Sulool – the chief of the hypocrites) and Hazrat Yazidra bin Thabit Khazraji. (Imam Abu al-Hasan Ahmad bin Yahya al-Buladhari, Futuh al-Buldan [Beirut, Lebanon: Mu’assisat al-Ma’arif, 1987], pp. 124-126)
According to some historians, the Battle of Yamamah took place in Rabi’ al-Awwal, 12 AH and according to others it took place towards the end of 11 AH. Both dates can be reconciled in this way that the actual battle commenced in 11 AH and ended in 12 AH. (Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, Vol. 3, Ch. 6 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2001] p. 322)
Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra states:
“All of those who claimed [prophethood] – and against whom the companions fought – were all such people who rebelled against the Islamic government and declared war against it. […] During the lifetime of the Holy Prophetsa, Musailimah wrote to the Holy Prophetsa in which he stated that he had been commanded that half of the Arab land was his and half for the Quraish. And after the demise of the Holy Prophetsa, he expelled Thumamah bin Uthal, who had been appointed as the governor of Hajr and Yamamah, and instead became the governor of that area himself and attacked the Muslims. He also captured two companions who had come from Medina, Habeebra bin Zaid and Abdullah bin Wahb, and forced them to accept his prophethood. Out of fear, Abdullah bin Wahb complied with what he said, however Habeebra bin Zaid refused to accept. Upon this, Musailimah cut him limb by limb and burnt him.
“Of those who had been officially appointed by the Holy Prophetsa in Yemen, he imprisoned some and also handed out strict punishments to some others. Similarly, Al-Tabari has written that Aswad Ansi also rebelled and began to give trouble to those who had been officially appointed as governors by the Holy Prophetsa and commanded that the wealth from the Zakat be taken from them. He also attacked Shahr bin Badhan in Sana’, who had been appointed as the governor of the city by the Holy Prophetsa. He killed many Muslims, ransacked the area, killed its governor and then married his wife against her will. The Banu Najran also rebelled and they joined Aswad Ansi and they expelled two companions from their area; Amr bin Hazm and Khalid bin Saeed.
“From this, it is evident that they did not fight against these people because they claimed prophethood from among the Ummah of the Holy Prophetsa and claimed to spread his faith; in fact, the companions fought against them because they were trying to abrogate the Islamic laws and establish their own laws instead. They claimed to be the rulers of their respective areas, and not just that, they also killed the companions.” (Maulana Maududi Sahib ke Risalah “Qadiani Mas’allah” ka Jawab, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 24, pp. 12-14)
They attacked the Muslims’ lands, rebelled against the existing government and announced to be completely free and independent.
The Promised Messiahas states:
“When the Holy Prophetsa passed away […] the Bedouins began to apostatise. This extremely perilous situation has been described by Hazrat Aishara as follows:
“‘When the Messengersa of God passed away, some people falsely claimed prophethood and some abandoned prayer and began to change in their conduct. In such a state and in the face of such a trial, my father became the Khalifa and successor of the Holy Prophetsa. My father had to endure such calamities that if they befell upon a mountain it would crumble. But to not lose strength and courage despite the immense hardships is not possible for any ordinary man. Indeed, such fortitude required sincerity and this was demonstrated by Siddiq [i.e. Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra]. It was not possible for anyone else to have been able to take care of this dangerous situation. All of the companions were present at the time, but no one stated that this was their duty. They could see that flames [of disorder] had erupted and so who would want to enter into it? In these circumstances, Hazrat Umarra extended his hand and pledged allegiance at the hands of Hazrat Abu Bakrra and thereafter, one by one, everyone else pledged allegiance to him as well. It was his sincerity that enabled him to put an end to the disorder and kill those who were perpetrating cruelties. Musailimah had an army of 100,000 people and he was introducing a change in the Islamic laws. (He was making certain things lawful within the Islamic Shariah and people were entering into his fold on account of this. There were many things which were prohibited and he was declaring them to be permissible. And this was mentioned once before as well.) Upon witnessing this, people were entering his religion; however, God Almighty proved who He was with and alleviated all the difficulties.’” (Malfuzat, Vol. 1, pp. 378-379)
The Promised Messiahas further states:
“It is no secret to historians that the Caliphate of Abu Bakrra was a time of fear and trials. A host of trials and difficulties befell Islam and the Muslims after the demise of the Holy Prophetsa. Many hypocrites became apostates and the apostates became bold in their speech. One group made a claim to prophethood and many Bedouins flocked around them, to the extent that Musailimah, the liar, amassed nearly 100,000 ignorant and wicked people around him. Trials erupted, afflictions increased, calamities engulfed all near and far, and the believers were shaken severely. All of the people were tried in that time, and a dreadful and shocking set of circumstances had developed. The believers were so helpless that it seemed as though brands of fire were lit in their hearts or as though they had been slaughtered with a knife. At times, they would weep due to their separation from the Greatest of Creationsa, and at other times, due to the trials which had emerged in the form of an intensely burning fire. There was not even the slightest hint of peace. The mischief-makers had spread all over like plants sprouting on a pile of dirt. The fear and concern of the believers had increased manifold, and their hearts were completely filled with dread and restlessness. During such precarious times, Hazrat Abu Bakrra was appointed the leader of the time and the Caliph of the Seal of the Prophetssa. Witnessing the behaviour, conduct and ways of the hypocrites, disbelievers and apostates caused him to drown in sorrow and grief. He would weep like a continuous downpour of rain, his tears would flow like a running fountain, and he would supplicate to Allah for the betterment of Islam and the Muslims.
“It has been narrated by Hazrat Aishara, ‘When my father was appointed as Khalifa and Allah granted him leadership, right from the outset of his Khilafat he was faced with the upsurge of disorder from every direction, the efforts of the false claimants to prophethood and the rebellion of the hypocrites and apostates. The number of calamites he had to face was such that if they were to befall upon a mountain it would cause it to immediately be crushed and crumble to the ground. However, he was granted patience like that of the prophets. Eventually, Allah the Almighty bestowed His succour and the false claimants to prophethood and apostates were killed. The disorders and dangers were put to an end, the situation was resolved and the institution of Khilafat was firmly established. Allah the Almighty saved the believers from the calamity, transformed their state of fear into peace and established for them their religion, He established the entire land upon the truth and utterly humiliated those who sought to create disorder. Allah fulfilled His promise and granted support to His servant, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra, and destroyed the leaders of the rebellion and their idols. The hearts of the disbelievers were completely overawed and they ultimately repented. This indeed was the promise of Allah, Who is the All-Powerful and Most Truthful. Thus, ponder how all the characteristics and hallmarks of Khilafat were fulfilled in the person of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra.’” (Sirr al-Khilafah Urdu Translation], Ruhani Khazain, pp. 47-50, Nazarat Ishaat)
It has been stated with regard to Hazrat Khalidra that upon the completion of the expedition to Yamamah he was still there when Hazrat Abu Bakrra wrote to him that he should set out towards Iraq. (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2012], p. 307)
In another narration it is mentioned that Hazrat Ala bin Hadrami requested Hazrat Abu Bakrra for reinforcements. He then wrote to Khalid bin Walidra instructing him to immediately depart from Yamamah towards Ala in order to help him, and so he did. Hutam was killed after which he joined forces and lay siege to Khut. Khut was a town in Bahrain of the Abd Al-Qais tribe where there was an abundance of dates. Thereafter, Hazrat Abu Bakrra instructed him to go to Iraq and so he left Bahrain for Iraq. (Imam Abu al-Hasan Ahmad bin Yahya al-Buladhari, Futuh al-Buldan – Translated [Karachi, Pakistan: Nafees Academy], p. 135) (Yaqut Ibn Abd Allah al-Hamawi, Mu‘jam al-Buldan, Vol. 2, p. 233)
With regard to the questions raised about Hazrat Khalid’sra marriage to the daughter of Muja‘ah bin Murarah, it is recorded in books of history that upon the completion of the Battle of Yamamah and after the treaty was formed with the remaining people of Banu Hanifah, there is mention of Hazrat Khalidra bin Walid’s marriage. According to historians, when Hazrat Abu Bakrra learned of this marriage, he was upset with Hazrat Khalidra; however, when Hazrat Khalidra wrote a letter to him containing a detailed explanation, Hazrat Abu Bakr’sra was no longer displeased with him. According to the details, after the treaty was formed, Khalidra requested Muja‘ah to marry his daughter to him. Muja‘ah was aware of the incident regarding Lailah Umm-e-Tamim, who was the wife of Malik bin Nuwairah and also Hazrat Abu Bakr’sra displeasure with Hazrat Khalid’sra marriage. Hence, he advised that he should wait, otherwise he would become the means of great difficulty for him and he himself would not be safe from the displeasure of Hazrat Abu Bakrra. However, Hazrat Khalidra said that he should marry his daughter to him and so he did. Hazrat Abu Bakrra would constantly await news from Yamamah and he would anticipate Hazrat Khalid’sra message bearer. One day, he was at a certain place with a group of Muhajirin and Ansar where he met Abu Khaithamahra, Hazrat Khalid’sra message bearer. When Hazrat Abu Bakrra saw him, he asked him what the news was? He said, “It is good news, O Khalifa of the Messengersa. Allah the Almighty granted us victory at Yamamah. Here is the letter sent by Khalidra.” Hazrat Abu Bakrra immediately fell into prostration of gratitude and said, “Tell me how the battle unfolded.” A narration regarding this has already been mentioned previously. In any case, Abu Khaithamahra gave details about the battle and explained what Khalidra did, how the army was organised, which companions were martyred, how the enemy dispersed and how they had to become accustomed to things which they previously weren’t.
Then there was also mention of Hazrat Khalid’sra marriage. Hazrat Abu Bakrra wrote him a letter saying, “O son of Umm-e-Khalid, you thought of marrying women while the blood of 1200 Muslims had not yet dried from your battlefield. What’s more, Muja‘ah deceived you into a treaty whereas Allah the Almighty had given you complete authority over them.” When Hazrat Abu Bakr’sra displeasure on account of the treaty with Muja‘ah and marriage to his daughter reached Khalidra, he wrote a letter in response and sent it to Hazrat Abu Bakrra in which he explained his point of view and presented his justifications. Hazrat Khalidra wrote, “I swear by the faith, I did not marry until the happiness [of victory] was complete and certain. I married the daughter of a person who would not have refused had I sent the proposal from Medina. Forgive me as I felt it appropriate to send the proposal from my current location. If this union displeases you from either the religious or worldly perspective, then I am prepared to act according to your desire. As for the matter of condolences for the slain; if someone’s pain and grief could keep someone alive or bring back the dead then my pain and grief would keep people alive and bring back the dead. I attacked in a way that I had no regard for my life and was certain of my death. As for the matter of Muja‘ah’s deception, then in my opinion, I was not wrong; however, I do not have knowledge of the unseen. Whatever happened, Allah made it to be in favour and for the betterment of Muslims. He made them inheritors of the land and the ultimate victory is for the righteous.” When Hazrat Abu Bakrra received this letter, his anger was subsided and a group of Quraish along with the bearer of Hazrat Khalid’sra letter sought pardon on his behalf upon which Hazrat Abu Bakrra said, “You have spoken the truth” and he accepted Hazrat Khalid’sra explanation and his apology. (Al-Iktifa bima Tadmanuh min Maghazi Rasul Allah wa al-Thalathah al-Khulafa, Vol. 2, Ch. 1 [Beirut, Lebanon: Alam al-Kutub, 1997], pp. 69-70) (Muhammad al-Salabi, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiqra – Urdu Translation, p.367, 368)
The rest will be mentioned in the future, insha-Allah. One aspect of the accounts related to the apostates is now complete.
(Official Urdu transcript published in Al Fazl International, 1 July 2022, pp. 5-9. Translated by The Review of Religions.)