20 October 2023
Muhammadsa: The Great Exemplar
After reciting the tashahud, ta‘awuz and Surah al-Fatihah, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih Vaa stated:
Today, I will continue narrating the accounts from the life of the Holy Prophetsa that took place soon after the Battle of Badr. In history, the account of Abu al-Aasra, the son-in-law of the Holy Prophetsa, accepting Islam is recorded in the following manner: In Jumadi al-Ula [fifth month of the Islamic calendar] in 6 AH, the Holy Prophetsa sent an expedition towards ‘Is under the command of Zaid bin Harithahra. ‘It is located at a distance of a four-day journey from Medina. When the distance is mentioned in the form of days, historians say that a day’s journey consists of 12 miles. As such, this place is located at a distance of 48 miles [from Medina]. Some details of this expedition are as follows. In Jumadi al-Ula 6 AH, the Holy Prophetsa deployed an expedition of 70 Companions under the command of Zaid bin Harithahra from Medina. The purpose of this expedition was that the Holy Prophetsa was informed that a caravan belonging to the Quraish of Mecca was approaching from Syria. Hence, the Holy Prophetsa dispatched this convoy. The objective of the trade caravan was to launch an attack on the Muslims and start a war upon their arrival. Nevertheless, this expedition of the Companions stopped them and seized their belongings. They even took some prisoners. Among these prisoners was Abu al-Aas. (Sharh al Zurqani ala al-Mawahib al-Ladunya, Vol. 3, pp. 124-125, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyya, Beirut, 1996; Urdu Lughat, Vol. 17, p. 772, under ‘Marhala’)
In The Life and Character of the Seal of Prophetssa, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra relates this in the following manner:
“Abu Al-Aas bin Ar-Rabi was also among the prisoners who were captured in the expedition to ‘Is. He was the son-in-law of the Holy Prophetsa and a near relative of the late Hazrat Khadijahra. Prior to this, he was also captured in the Battle of Badr, but the Holy Prophetsa released him on the condition that when he reached Mecca, he would send his daughter – Hazrat Zainabra, to Medina. Abu Al-Aas fulfilled his promise but was still personally a polytheist. When Zaid bin Harithahra captured him and brought him to Medina it was nighttime, but somehow he managed to send word to Hazrat Zainabra that, ‘I have been captured and brought here. If possible, see if you can arrange something for my release.’ So, just as the Holy Prophetsa and his companions were engaged in their morning prayer, Zainabra announced from her home in a loud voice, ‘O Ye Muslims! I have granted Abu Al-Aas protection.’ When the Holy Prophetsa had completed his salat, he turned to his companions and said, ‘Whatever Zainab has said, you have heard it. By God, I had no prior knowledge of this, but the community of believers is like a single soul. If one of them grants protection to an infidel, its honour is incumbent.’ Then the Holy Prophetsa turned to Zainabra and said, ‘We have granted protection to whom you endow protection.’ The wealth which was acquired from Abu Al-Aas during this expedition was returned to him. Then, the Holy Prophetsa entered the home of Zainabra and said to his daughter, ‘Be very hospitable to Abu Al-Aas, but do not meet him in seclusion. Under the current circumstances, it is not lawful that you meet with him.’ After a stay of a few days, Abu Al-Aas went to Mecca, but this time his return to Mecca was not for permanent residence, for he quickly settled all his affairs and set off to Medina reciting the Kalimah-e-Shahadah, and upon reaching the Holy Prophetsa he became a Muslim. The Holy Prophetsa sent Hazrat Zainabra to him without a new nikah.In certain narrations it is also mentioned that the nikah of Hazrat Zainabra and Abu Al-Aasra was performed anew, but the first narration is more reliable and authentic.” (The Life & Character of the Seal of Prophetssa, Vol. 3, pp. 15-16)
From this, we learn the precedent that if a woman seeks separation due to the disbelief of her husband, then there is no need for another nikah once he becomes a believer. Hazrat Zainabra did not live long after her husband accepted Islam and passed away in 8 AH. Hazrat Umm Aymanra, Hazrat Saudahra, Hazrat Umm Salamara, and Hazrat Umm ‘Atiyyara washed her body in accordance with the guidance of the Holy Prophetsa. (Siyar al-Sahabah, Vol. 6, p. 90, Dar al-Isha’at, Karachi, 2004)
Hazrat Umm ‘Atiyyara relates that when the Holy Prophetsa instructed them to wash the body of his daughter, he said: “Start [washing her] from the right side of her body and those parts of the body that are washed at the time of ablution.” In another narration, the details of this are as follows. Hazrat Umm ‘Atiyyara relates that “When the daughter of the Holy Prophetsa, Zainabra, passed away, the Holy Prophetsa said to us: ‘Wash her body an odd number of times, that is three or five times and apply some camphor after the fifth wash. And inform me once you are finished washing her body.’” She narrates, “We informed the Holy Prophetsa and he gave us his izar and told us to use it as a shi’ar.” (Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Jana’iz, Bab fi Ghusli al-Mayyit, Hadith 2173, 2176)
He gave them the cloth that was wrapped around the back [izar] and shi’ar is the cloth that is placed around the body. (Lughat al-Hadith, Vol.2, p. 486, Nu’mani Kutub Khana, Lahore, 2005)
Following this, the Holy Prophetsa led the funeral prayer; he then entered the grave and buried his daughter. Hazrat Zainabra left two children behind, Ali and Amamah. According to one narration, Ali passed away in his childhood, whereas according to another narration, he reached an age of maturity. Ibn Asakir has written that he was martyred during the Battle of Yarmuk. At the conquest of Mecca, he was riding behind the Holy Prophetsa. (Siyar al-Sahabah, Vol. 6, p. 90, Dar al-Isha’at, Karachi, 2004)
In relation to Hazrat Umm Amamah, it is stated that following the demise of Hazrat Fatimahra, Hazrat ‘Alira married her. (Ibn Sa’d, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 8, p. 25, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990)
Hazrat Abu Al-Aas’ra trade business was all in Mecca; therefore, he could not stay in Medina. And so, after accepting Islam, he took permission from the Holy Prophetsa and returned to Mecca. Due to residing in Mecca, he did not have the opportunity to take part in any military expeditions, except for one that was sent in 10 AH under the command of Hazrat Alira. Upon returning from Yemen, Hazrat Alira appointed him as the governor of Yemen. After the demise of Hazrat Zainabra, Hazrat Abu Al-Aasra did not live long and passed away in 12 AH. (Siyar al-Sahabah, Vol. 7, p. 491, Dar al-Isha’at, Karachi; Usd al-Ghabah, Vol. 6, pp. 182-183, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilimiyyah, Beirut)
Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra has written with reference to Hazrat Abu Al-Aasra and the fact that the Holy Prophetsa was pleased with him in the following manner:
“The son-in-law of the Holy Prophetsa, Abu Al-Aas bin Rabira was a near relative of Hazrat Khadijahra, i.e., her nephew. Despite being a polytheist, his treatment towards his wife was very kind, and after he became a Muslim, the relationship between husband and wife also remained pleasant. Therefore, the Holy Prophetsa would often praise Abu Al-Aasra in this regard, saying that he had treated his daughter well. Abu Al-Aasra passed away in the era of the caliphate of Hazrat Abu Bakrra in 12 A.H. His honourable wife, however, passed away in the lifetime of the Holy Prophetsa. (The previous narration about Hazrat Alira appointing him as governor seems a little doubtful.) Her daughter, Amamah, who was very dear to the Holy Prophetsa, was married to Hazrat Alira after the demise of Hazrat Fatimahra, but had no children.” (The Life & Character of the Seal of Prophetssa, Vol. 3, pp. 15-16)
The Battle of Sawiq took place in Dhu al-Hijjah 2 AH. The reason for the Battle of Sawiq is that when the idolaters returned to Mecca defeated and grief-stricken, Abu Sufyan did not permit himself to pour oil on himself and took an oath that he would not bathe until he took revenge for what happened at Badr, against the Holy Prophetsa and his Companions. According to a narration, Abu Sufyan set out with 200 riders, whereas according to another narration, he set out with 40 riders to fulfil his vow. He did not take the common path to Medina and instead took the path towards Najd. When he reached the top of the Qinad Valley, he set up camp close to the Yatib Mountain, situated approximately 12 miles from Medina. Qinad is among the three well-known valleys of Medina, situated between Medina and Uhud.
He set out at night and reached the Banu Nadir tribe in the darkness of the night. Having reached Huyayy bin Akhtab, he knocked on his door, but he refused to open the door. Abu Sufyan then went to Sallam bin Mashkam, who at the time was the chief and treasurer of the Banu Nadir tribe. Abu Sufyan sought his permission to enter, and he granted it. He hosted him, provided food and drink, and discussed all the confidential matters of the people and of the Holy Prophetsa. That is to say, he informed him of his daily routine, what he does and where he is at any given time. Then, Abu Sufyan departed from there in the latter part of the night and returned to his companions. He then sent a few people of the Quraish to a place called ‘Uraid on the outskirts of Medina. ‘Uraid is a date palm orchard situated three miles from Medina. They burnt down several date groves there and killed an Ansari man along with his helper. According to one narration, this Ansari was Hazrat Ma’bad bin Amrra.
When Abu Sufyan felt that his vow had been fulfilled by the damage caused. Having taken some sort of revenge, his fire for revenge had somewhat subsided, and he returned to Mecca with his army. It is also stated that Abu Sufyan committed this the same night he returned, having met Sallam bin Mashkam.
In any case, when the people learned of this, the Holy Prophetsa appointed Hazrat Abu Lubabah Bashir bin Abd al-Mundhir as his deputy, and set off on the 5th of Dhu al-Hijjah, on a Sunday in the 22nd month after Hijra along with 200 companions from among the Muhajrin and Ansar in pursuit of him, until he reached Qarqarat al-Kudr. Qarqarat al-Kudr is a place near al-Hazyah, on the outskirts of Kudr Madan, which is 96 miles from Medina. It is also mentioned that this was the watering place of Banu Sulaim. In any case, Abu Sufyan and his army were still fleeing quietly and continued to throw bags of barley, which was their normal travel provision. The Muslims continued to pick those up, and this is why it is called Ghazwah Sawiq, as it was the Ghazwah of the barley. Barley in Arabic is sawiq. Abu Sufyan and his army fled, and the Muslims were unable to catch them and so the Holy Prophetsa returned to Medina.
When the Companions were returning alongside the Holy Prophetsa, they asked, “O Messenger of Allahsa, in your view, was this considered a battle?” to which he replied, “Yes.” (Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad, Vol. 4, p. 174, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyah, Beirut, 1983; Ibn Sa’d, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 2, pp. 22-23, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyah, Beirut, 1990; Allamah Shibli Nu’mani, Sirat al-Nabisa, Vol. 1, p. 211; Sirat Encyclopedia, Vol. 6, pp. 55-56; Farhang-e-Sirat, p. 234, 239, 242, Zawar Academy, Karachi)
This was considered a battle, whether a formal fight took place or not.
Details of this are mentioned in The Life and Character of the Seal of Prophets, as follows:
“After Badr, Abu Sufyan had vowed that until he had sought revenge for those who had fallen at Badr, he would abstain from having relations with his wife and applying oil to his hair. As such, a few months after Badr, in the month of Dhul-Hijjah, Abu Sufyan set out from Mecca with a force of two hundred armed men from the Quraish and reached a place close to Medina via the route of Najd. Upon reaching there, he left his army at some distance from Medina and, in the veil of the darkness of night, reached the abode of Huyayy bin Akhtab, who was chief of the Jewish tribe, the Banu Nadir, and sought his aid. However, since Huyayy still somewhat remembered his treaty and agreement, he refused. (Since he had an agreement, he did not help nor gave him any protection.) Then, in the same manner, Abu Sufyan secretly went to the home of another chief of the Banu Nadir named Sallam bin Mashkam, and sought his support against the Muslims. This wretched man, however, very audaciously ignored all of his treaties and agreements and warmly welcomed Abu Sufyan as a guest for the night, and transmitted secret intelligence to him pertaining to the Muslims. Before dawn, Abu Sufyan took leave and upon reaching his army, dispatched a contingent of the Quraish to raid a valley named ‘Arid, which was located close to Medina. This was a valley where the animals belonging to the Muslims would graze, and which was situated at a distance of only three miles from Medina. It is likely that Abu Sufyan was made aware of this through Sallam bin Mashkam. When this contingent of the Quraish reached the valley of ‘Ariḍ, fortunately, at the time, the animals belonging to the Muslims were not present. Albeit, a Muslim from among the Ansar and a companion of his were present at the time. The Quraish apprehended both of them and ruthlessly murdered them. Then, they set ablaze the date palms in the area and set fire to the homes and small huts which were located there, before returning to the camp of Abu Sufyan. Considering this success as being sufficient fulfilment of his vow, Abu Sufyan ordered the army to return. On the other hand, when the Holy Prophetsa was informed of the attack made by Abu Sufyan, he set out with a group of Companions in his pursuit. However, since Abu Sufyan did not fancy throwing the fulfilment of his vow to doubt, he fled so frantically that the Muslim army was unable to apprehend him. Ultimately, after an absence of a few days, the Holy Prophetsa returned to Medina. (He has also written this.) This Ghazwah is known as the Ghazwah of Sawiq because when Abu Sufyan made haste to Mecca, he fled leaving his ration behind, which primarily consisted of ‘Sawiq’ or sacks of barley, partly due to anxiety and also in order to lighten his load.” (The Life and Character of the Seal of Prophets, Vol. 2, pp. 279-280)
It is stated regarding the Battle of Sawiq, that a battle with this name also occurred after the Battle of Uhud in 4 AH. Thus, Tabari has mentioned two battles with the name Sawiq: one prior to the Battle of Uhud, the details of which have just been mentioned, and the second battle was after the Battle of Uhud; however, other books of history such as Sirat Ibn Hisham, Subul al-Huda, etc., have called this battle by the name ‘The Battle of Badr al-Mau’id’.
I will also provide some details regarding this battle. In short, when Abu Sufyan intended to return on the day of Uhud, he shouted, and addressing the Holy Prophetsa he stated: “I make a vow between, that one year from now, we will fight at Badr al-Sufra.”
Badr al-Sufra was a place where the Arabs used to gather and set up markets. And so, the Holy Prophetsa commanded Hazrat Umarra, “Tell them, we accept God-willing.” Upon this agreement, the people dispersed.
Thus, in accordance with this agreement between Abu Sufyan and the Holy Prophetsa at Uhud, the Holy Prophetsa set out the following year towards Badr. Upon reaching there, the Holy Prophetsa camped for eight nights, waiting for Abu Sufyan.
Abu Sufyan went to the outskirts of Mar al-Zahran with the people of Mecca and stayed at Majannah. Majannah is also a city a few miles from Mecca, in Mar al-Zahran near Jabal al-Asfar.
After this, he made the excuse of drought and returned [to Mecca] with his people. He didn’t have the courage to come forth. The people of Mecca began to call this army “the army of Sawiq” because they drank Sawiq [grain drink] on their way there. (Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2, p. 87, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyah, Beirut, 2012; Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad, Vol. 4, p. 337, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1993; Farhang-e-Sirat, p. 259, Zawar Academy, Karachi)
It is written about the first Eid al-Adha that upon returning from the Battle of Sawiq in 2 AH, the Holy Prophetsa observed Eid al-Adha, which was the first Eid al-Adha of the Muslims. On the 10th of Dhul Hijjah, the Holy Prophetsa went outside of Medina with his Companions. He led the congregational prayer, and he also slaughtered an animal there with his own blessed hands. (Da’irah Ma’arif, Sirat Muhammad Rasulullahsa, Vol. 6, p. 362-363, Dar al-Ma’arif, Lahore, 2022)
It is mentioned in a narration that when the Holy Prophetsa returned to Medina from the expedition of Banu Qainuqa’, it was the time for Eid ul Adha. The Holy Prophetsa and whoever among his Companions had sacrificial animals, slaughtered them on the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah.
The Holy Prophetsa went with his Companions to the venue for Eid, where he led the first Eid al-Adha prayer. This was the first Eid al-Adha prayer that the Holy Prophetsa led his Companions in within Medina, and there he also slaughtered one or two goats with his own hands.
Hazrat Jabir bin Abdullahra narrates that “upon their return from the expedition of Qainuqa’, we offered the sacrifice on the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah. This was the first sacrifice that the Muslims witnessed. We performed our sacrifice in the Banu Salama [area], and I counted the number of sacrifices: there were 17 sacrifices, which I counted there that day.” (Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2, p. 49, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2012)
This is a reference from Tarikh Al-Tabari. Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra writes regarding this incident in The Life and Character of the Seal of the Prophetssa, as follows:
“In this very year, during the month of Dhul-Hijjah, the second Islamic festival, i.e., Eid al-Adha was ordained, which is celebrated on the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah throughout the Islamic world. On this Eid, in addition to salat, which is the true Eid of every true Muslim, it is obligatory upon every such Muslim who possesses the means, to sacrifice a four-legged animal and distribute its meat amongst his kith and kin, friends, neighbours, etc., and to partake of it himself as well.”
Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra goes into detail so that people can also learn about the fundamental teachings as well. Thus, this is the manner in which the sacrificial meat is distributed:
“As such, on the day of Eid ul Adha, and for two days thereafter as well, hundreds of thousands, rather, millions of animals are slaughtered for the sake of Allah throughout the entire Islamic world. In this manner, by way of practice, remembrance of the magnificent sacrifice made by Hazrat Abrahamas, Hadrat Ishmaelas and Hadrat Hagaras – the greatest example of which was the life of the Holy Prophetsa – is kept alive; and each and every Muslim is exhorted that he too should be prepared to sacrifice his life, wealth, and all of his possessions in the way of his Master and Lord. Just as in the case of Eid ul Fitr, this Eid is also celebrated at the completion of a grand Islamic worship, and that worship is the Hajj.” (The Life & Character of the Seal of Prophetssa, Vol. 2, pp. 280-281)
Hazrat Fatimah’sra nikah also took place in 2 AH Hazrat Alira requested the Holy Prophetsa for Hazrat Fatimah’sra hand in marriage, and the Holy Prophetsa happily accepted. Hazrat Anasra narrates that both Hazrat Abu Bakrra and Hazrat Umarra requested the Holy Prophetsa for Hazrat Fatimah’sra hand in marriage, but the Holy Prophetsa remained silent and did not respond to them. Looking further into the narrations reveals that it was Hazrat Umar and Hazrat Abu Bakr made this request first, followed by Hazrat Ali. Nonetheless, Hazrat Alira narrates, “I went to the Holy Prophetsa and asked if he would marry Hazrat Fatimahra to me. He replied, ‘Do you have anything for the dowry?’ I replied that I have my horse and armour. The Holy Prophetsa then said, ‘You will require a horse, but you can sell the armour.’ Thus, I sold my armour for 480 dirhams and arranged for a dowry.”
Another narration states that Hazrat Alira sold his armour to Hazrat Uthmanra, and Hazrat Uthmanra not only paid for the armour, but he then also returned it. Hazrat Alira says, “I brought that amount and placed it in the Holy Prophet’ssa lap. The Holy Prophetsa gave a handful of it to Bilalra and instructed him to buy some perfume and bring it to him. He also instructed others to prepare Hazrat Fatimah’sra dowry. Thus, a bed and a leather pillow filled with bark from date palms were prepared for her. The dowry can also be used in this manner. Some people say that after the marriage has taken place, they do not have to give the dowry; however, this example shows that the expenses were covered using the dowry itself. According to another narration, whilst marrying his daughter to Hazrat Alira, the Holy Prophetsa said, “My Lord has commanded me to carry this out.”
After seeing his daughter off, the Holy Prophetsa said to Hazrat Alira, “When Fatimah comes to you, do not say anything to her until I come to you.” Hazrat Fatimahra came, accompanied by Hazrat Umm Aimanra and took a seat in a portion of the house. “I, too, sat in another portion,” said Hazrat Alira. Thereafter, the Holy Prophetsa arrived and said, “Is my brother here?” Umm Aiman replied, “Your ‘brother’ and yet you have married your daughter off to him?” The Holy Prophetsa replied, “Yes, because marriages between such relatives (i.e., who are cousins) can take place. Nevertheless, he is not my biological brother.” The Holy Prophetsa entered and asked Hazrat Fatimahra to bring him water. She stood up and brought him a bowl of water that was stored in the house. He took the water, put it in his mouth for some time, and then put it back into the bowl. The Holy Prophetsa told Hazrat Fatimahra to come forward, and she came forward. He sprinkled some water onto her and on her head, and whilst offering prayers for her, said:
اَللّٰھُمَّ اِنِّيْ اُعِيْذُھَا بِکَ وَ ذُرِّيَّتُھَا مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيْمِ
“O Allah, I put her and her children in your refuge from Satan, the accursed.” Then, the Holy Prophetsa said, “Look the other way.” When she turned around, the Holy Prophetsa sprinkled water between her shoulders, and then did the same to Hazrat Alira. Addressing Hazrat Alira, the Holy Prophetsa said, “Go to your family, with Allah’s name and blessings.” Similarly, in another narration, Hazrat Alira relates that the Holy Prophetsa performed ablution in a bowl and sprinkled that water onto him and Hazrat Fatimahra, saying:
اَللّٰھُمَّ بَارِکْ فِيْھِمَا وَ بَارِکْ لَھُمَا فِيْ شَمْلِھَا
“O Allah, bless both of them and bless their communion.”
Hazrat Aishara and Hazrat Umm Salmahra narrate, “The Holy Prophetsa instructed us to prepare Fatimahra and bring her to Hazrat Alira. Thus, we returned home and spread some soft sand taken from around Batha (i.e., they first prepared the home), then filled two pillows with the bark from the date palms and carded them with our own hands. We put out dates, raisins and sweet water to eat and drink and we also set up a wooden [stand] on one side of the room to hang clothes on, and so a waterskin could hang on it. We had not seen a better wedding than Hazrat Fatimah’sra. The Walimah dinner comprised dates, barley, goat cheese and heis.” Heis is a dish that combines dates, clarified butter and goat cheese.
Hazrat Asma bint Umais narrates that in that era, this was the best Walimah that had taken place. (Sharh Allama al-Zurqani ala al-Mawahib al-Ladunya, Vol. 2, p. 357-366, Zikr Tazwij Ali bi Fatimah, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1996; Tarikh al-Khamis, Vol. 2, p. 77, Fi al-Waqi’ mun awwal hajarathusa ila wafatihi, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2009; Sunan Ibn Majah, Kitab an-Nikah, Bab al-Walimah, Hadith 1911; Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 8, p. 19, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990; Lughat al-Hadith, Vol. 1, p. 542, Nu’manu Kutub Khanah Lahore, 2005)
This marriage and Walimah dinner is a great example of simplicity. The marriage of Hazrat Fatimahra and Hazrat Alira is mentioned in great detail in The Life and Character of the Seal of Prophetssa. There are some additional details in this, which are important, and so I will mention this as well.
It is stated:
“Hazrat Fatimahra was the youngest child of the Holy Prophetsa, from among the children he was blessed with from Hazrat Khadijahra. The Holy Prophetsa held Hazrat Fatimahra most dear to himself, and on account of her personal merit, she was undoubtedly most worthy of this distinct love. Now, her age had more or less reached fifteen, and she had begun to receive proposals of marriage. It was Hazrat Abu Bakrra who was the very first to make a request for Hazrat Fatimahra but the Holy Prophetsa apologised. Then, Hazrat Umarra made a proposal, but his request was not accepted either. After this, upon judging that the intention of the Holy Prophetsa seemed to be with respect to Hazrat Alira, both of these honourable men approached Hazrat Alira and encouraged him to make a proposal with regard to Hazrat Fatimahra. Hazrat Alira who was perhaps already desirous, but was silent out of modesty, immediately presented himself before the Holy Prophetsa and submitted a proposal. The Holy Prophetsa had already received an indication by way of divine revelation that the marriage of Hazrat Fatimahra should take place with Hazrat Alira. Hence, when Hazrat Alira presented a request, the Holy Prophetsa said, ‘I have already received a divine indication in this respect.’ Then, the Holy Prophetsa sought the consent of Hazrat Fatimahra, who remained silent out of modesty, She did not say anything as she was shy. In a way, this was also an expression of acceptance. Therefore, the Holy Prophetsa gathered a community of the Muhajirin and Ansar, and formally announced the marriage of Hazrat Alira and Hazrat Fatimahra. This event took place in the beginning or middle of 2 A.H. Afterwards, when the Battle of Badr had taken place, it was proposed that the rukhsatanah be held in the month of Dhul-Hijjah 2 A.H. The Holy Prophetsa called upon Hazrat Alira and inquired of him as to whether he had anything he could use to pay the dowry. Hazrat Alira submitted, ‘O Messenger of Allahsa! I have nothing.’ The Holy Prophetsa responded, “What about that coat of mail I gave to you on that day (i.e., from the spoils of Badr)?’ Hazrat Alira responded, ‘That I do have.’ The Holy Prophetsa said, ‘That shall suffice; bring it.’ Hence, this coat of mail was sold for 480 dirhams and the Holy Prophetsa arranged for the expenses of the wedding from this very amount. The dowry which the Holy Prophetsa gave to Hazrat Fatimahra consisted of an embroidered shawl, a cushion made of hide which had been filled with dry date palm leaves, and a water-skin. It is also related in one narration that the Holy Prophetsa also gave Hazrat Fatimahra a hand-mill as part of her dowry. When these items had been arranged for, there was a need to obtain a home. Until now, Hazrat Alira perhaps lived with the Holy Prophetsa in an apartment built next to the mosque. However, a separate abode was now required, where husband and wife could reside after marriage. Therefore, the Holy Prophetsa instructed Hazrat Alira to find a place where both of them could reside. Hazrat Alira temporarily arranged for a home and the rukhsatanah of Hazrat Fatimahra took place. On the very same day, after the rukhsatanah, the Holy Prophetsa visited their new home and called for some water to be brought to him, prayed on it and then sprinkled it on both Hazrat Fatimahra and Hazrat Alira, whilst repeating the following words (which I have already mentioned earlier):
اَللّٰھُمَّ بَارِکْ فِيْھِمَا وَ بَارِکْ عَلَيْھِمَا وَ بَارِکْ لَھُمَا نَسْلَھُمَا
This is a prayer that the parents of the newlywed couple should recite as well. Nowadays, certain issues arise between the husband and wife after marriage, and this is something that is increasing. It is simply due to them being increasingly influenced by material and worldly attractions and due to paying less focus on their faith and the commandments of Allah the Almighty. If they give precedence to their faith and pray in this manner, and the parents also fulfil their responsibilities in this manner, then the marriages will remain intact. In any case, the meaning of this prayer is: “O my Allah! Bless the mutual relations of both of them, and bless those relations of both that are built with others and bless their progeny.” After this, the Holy Prophetsa left the newlywed couple alone and returned. Afterwards, one day, when the Holy Prophetsa came to visit Hazrat Fatimahra, she submitted to the Holy Prophetsa that Harithah bin Nu‘man Ansarira was in possession of a few homes, and asked if the Holy Prophetsa would request him to vacate one of them (so they could move closer to him). The Holy Prophetsa said, ‘He has already vacated so many homes for our sake. Now I feel embarrassed in requesting more of him.’ In some way or another, when Harithahra happened to find out about this, he came running to the Holy Prophetsa and submitted, “O Messengersa of Allah! Everything I own belongs to you my Master. By God, whatever you accept of me causes me greater joy than that which remains with me.’ Then, this faithful Companion insisted and vacated one of his homes, and presented it to the Holy Prophetsa. After this, Hazrat Alira and Hazrat Fatimahra moved to this home.” (The Life & Character of the Seal of Prophetssa, Vol. 2, pp. 281-283)
Despite the straitened circumstances and being in poverty, Hazrat Alira and Hazrat Fatimahra exhibited piety and contentment. Hazrat Alira is recorded to have stated in ahadith that Hazrat Fatimahra complained about discomfort in her hands from operating the hand mill. Some prisoners had been brought to the Holy Prophetsa and so she went to see the Holy Prophetsa but he was not there. She met Hazrat Aishahra and informed her about the reason she had come. When the Holy Prophetsa returned, Hazrat Aishahra informed him about Hazrat Fatimah’sra visit. Hazrat Fatimahra states, “The Holy Prophetsa came to visit us when we had already laid down in bed. We were about to get up when the Holy Prophetsa instructed us to remain as we were. He then sat between us, and I could feel the coolness of his feet upon my chest. The Holy Prophetsa said, ‘Shall I not inform you of something even better than what you have requested? It is that when both of you lay in your beds, recite Allahu Akbar [Allah is the Greatest] 34 times, SubhanAllah [Holy is Allah] 33 times and Alhamdulillah [All praise belongs to Allah] 33 times. This is better for both of you than a worker.’” Hazrat Abu Hurairahra narrates that Hazrat Fatimahra went to the Holy Prophetsa to request for a worker and complained about the discomfort from her work. The Holy Prophetsa said, “You will not find a worker from here.” The Holy Prophetsa said, “Should I not tell you of something that will be better for you than a worker? When you retire for bed, recite SubhanAllah 33 times, Alhamdulillah 33 times and Allahu Akbar 34 times.” This is a narration from Sahih Muslim. (Sahih Muslim, Kitab az-zikri wa ad-du‘a’i wa t-tawbah […], Bab at-tasbih awwal an-nahar wa ‘inda an-nawm, Hadith 6915, 6918)
Whilst mentioning the life of the Holy Prophetsa, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra mentions this incident with reference to Sahih al-Bukhari and states: “Hazrat Fatimahra complained that she experienced discomfort as a result of grinding the hand mill. It was at the same time that some prisoners were brought to the Holy Prophetsa. She went to visit the Holy Prophetsa but he was not at home and so she informed Hazrat Aishara as to the reason for her visit and then returned to her own home. When the Holy Prophetsa returned home, Hazrat Aishara informed the Holy Prophetsa about Hazrat Fatimah’sra visit, upon which the Holy Prophetsa visited her home when they had already laid down in their beds. She says, “Upon his arrival, I wished to stand, however, the Holy Prophetsa said, ‘Keep laying where you are’. Then, he sat between us both, and I could feel the coolness of his feet upon my chest. When he was seated, he said, ‘Shall I not tell you something that is better than that which you asked for? It is that when you lay down in your beds, glorify God [Allahu Akbar] 34 times, say SubhanAllah 33 times and Alhamdulillah 33 times. This will be better for you than a worker.’”
Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra states: “This incident shows that the Holy Prophetsa was so careful in the distribution of wealth that despite Hazrat Fatimahra needing a worker and the fact that she experienced discomfort in her hands from grinding the mill, yet, despite this, the Holy Prophetsa did not give them a worker. Instead, he enjoined them to pray and directed their attention towards Allah the Almighty. If the Holy Prophetsa wished, he could have granted a worker to Hazrat Fatimahra because whenever wealth would come to the Holy Prophetsa to be distributed, it would be distributed among the Companions, over which Hazrat Alira also had a right, as did Hazrat Fatimahra. However, the Holy Prophetsa was cautious and did not wish to give those close to him or his relatives a portion of that wealth, because it was possible that in the future some may draw erroneous conclusions and kings would deem it appropriate to keep the people’s wealth for themselves. (Unfortunately, the Muslim rulers of today deem this to be appropriate.) Hence, out of caution, the Holy Prophetsa did not give Hazrat Fatimahra any of the male or female prisoners who had come to him to be distributed. At this stage, it should also be remembered that from this wealth, God Almighty had assigned a portion for the Holy Prophetsa and his relatives, from which the Holy Prophetsa would spend and give to his relatives. Unless something fell into his own portion, he would never spend it, nor would he give it to anyone close to him or his relatives. Can the world present the example of a king who protects the treasury in such a manner? If there is an example, then it is only from among the servants of that pure one; otherwise, such examples cannot be found in any other religion.” (Siratun Nabisa, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 1, pp. 544-545)
The rest will be mentioned in the future, insha-Allah.
At this moment, I would once again like to make an appeal for prayers in light of the current conditions in the world. Now, columnists of the Western world, and in fact, even from the USA have started writing in the newspapers that there should be a limit to retaliation and that the West and America should play their role in the current conflict between Israel and Hamas in trying to create peace and establish a ceasefire.
However, they also write that it seems rather than bringing an end to the war, they are bent upon fanning the flames of war. Just recently, there was news that a veteran US State Department official resigned because the situation had reached an extreme and too much cruelty was being perpetrated against many innocent Palestinians and that the major powers need to act.
Hence, this shows that there are good-natured people among them. Sometimes it is seen in the media that even Jewish Rabbis speak up on their behalf and speak out against injustice. Even the Russian Foreign Minister has stated that if the situation continues, then this war will spill over to the entire region. In fact, in my view, the war could extend to the entire world. Hence, these people must come to their senses.
As I previously mentioned, the Muslim world must unite and speak up with one voice. If all the Muslim countries, and it is said there are around 53 or 54 Muslim countries, if they all raised a united voice, it would have an impact. One or two lone voices have no impact.
This is the way to achieve peace in the world and bring an end to this war. Hence, Muslim countries must strive to their utmost to play their role in order to save the world from destruction. May Allah the Almighty grant them the ability to do so.
In any case, we must focus on prayers. May Allah bring an end to this war. May Allah save the innocent Palestinians and save them from further cruelty. May He eradicate injustice from the world, wherever it may be. And may Allah the Almighty grant us the ability to pray.
(Official Urdu transcript published in the Daily Al Fazl International, 10 November 2023, pp. 2-7. Translated by The Review of Religions.)