28 June 2019
Hazrat Zaid Bin Harithahra
After reciting the Tashahud, Ta‘awuz and Surah al-Fatihah, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih Vaa stated:
There are a few more accounts from the life of Hazrat Zaidra bin Haritha which I shall relate today. In relation to an expedition which was sent to the Banu Sulaim in Rabi-ul-Akhir 6 AH, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahibra writes in Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin:
“In this month, Rabi-ul-Akhir 6 AH, the Holy Prophetsa dispatched a few Muslims to the tribe Bani Sulaim under the command of his freed slave and previously adopted son, Zaidra bin Harithah. This tribe resided in the region of Najd at a place called Jamum and had been at war against the Holy Prophetsa for some time now. As such, this tribe played a significant role against the Muslims in the Battle of the Ditch as well. When Zaidra bin Harithah and his companions reached Jamum, which was located at a distance of approximately 50 miles from Medina, they found it to be empty. However, they were able to find the whereabouts of where a portion of the Banu Sulaim were grazing their cattle, from a woman named Halimah from the Muzainah tribe who was from among the opponents of Islam. Therefore, benefiting from this intelligence, Zaidra bin Harithah attacked the place. This sudden attack caused most of the people to flee and they dispersed here and there. However, the Muslims were able to capture a few prisoners and some cattle, which they took hold of and returned to Medina. Coincidentally, the husband of Halimah was also among the prisoners, and although he was an enemy of war, considering Halimah’s assistance, not only did the Holy Prophetsa release Halimah without ransom but also released her husband as an act of benevolence. Thereafter, Halimah and her husband happily returned to their homeland.” (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra, p. 669)
In relation to another expedition of Hazrat Zaidra bin Haritha which was sent to ‘Eis and took place in Jamadi al-Ula 6 AH, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahibra writes in Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin:
“Not many days had passed since the return of Zaidra bin Harithah, when the Holy Prophetsa sent him from Medina once again during the month of Jamadi al-Ula, commanding 170 companions. The scholars of Sirathave written that the cause of this expedition was that a caravan of the Quraish was arriving from Syria and that the Holy Prophetsa had sent this squadron for the interception of this caravan … However, here it is sufficient to allude to the fact that these caravans of the Quraish were always armed and whilst travelling between Mecca and Syria they passed very closely by Medina, and so they were a constant threat. Other than this, as has already been mentioned in the preliminary discussion on this topic, these caravans would provoke the tribes of Arabia against the Muslims wherever they passed. Due to this, a dangerous fire of animosity had been ignited throughout the country against the Muslims, due to which their interception was necessary.
“In any case, upon receiving news of this caravan, the Holy Prophetsa dispatched Zaidra bin Harithah to meet it. He moved forward with such intelligence, seizing the opportunity, that he was able to successfully reach Eis and intercepted the caravan. Eis is the name of a place situated at a distance of four days’ travel from Medina, towards the ocean. Since this was a sudden attack, the people of the caravan were unable to combat this assault of the Muslims. They left all their belongings and fled. Zaidra captured a few prisoners and took hold of the caravan’s load, set off to Medina and presented himself before the Holy Prophetsa.”
It should be remembered that every expedition that was sent, or any battle that took place was because there was always news of some threat from the approaching caravans and that they were conspiring against the Muslims in order to launch an attack.
Hazrat Zaidra bin Haritha was sent on another expedition in Jamadi al-Akhir in 6 AH which was sent to Tarif. In relation to this, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahibra writes:
“Sometime after the Ghazwahof Banu Lihyan, in Jamadi al-Akhir 6 AH, the Holy Prophetsa dispatched a squadron of 15 men in the command of Zaidra bin Haritha towards Tarif, which was located at a distance of 36 miles from Medina. In those days, the people of Banu Thu‘labah resided there, but before Zaidra bin Haritha could reach it, the people of this tribe received a timely alert and dispersed. After a temporary absence of a few days, Zaidra bin Haritha and his companions returned to Medina.” Neither did any battle take place and nor did they go after and search for them. (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra, pp. 690-681)
Then there is another expedition of Hazrat Zaidra bin Haritha towards the location of Hisma, which took place in Jamadi al-Akhir 6 AH. In relation to this, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahibra writes:
“In this month, Jamadi al-Akhir, the Holy Prophetsa sent Hazrat Zaidra bin Haritha with 500 Muslims towards Hisma to the north of Medina, which was the settlement of the Banu Juzam. The purpose of this expedition was because a companion of the Holy Prophetsa named Dihyah Kalbira was returning from Syria after meeting the Caesar of Rome. He was accompanied by goods as well, some of which were in the form of gifts etc. from Caesar, while some were goods of trade. When Dihyahra passed by the region of the Banu Juzam, the chief of the tribe, Hunaid bin Arid, took a party of his tribe and attacked Dihyahra, and seized all his goods to the extent that they left nothing on the body of Dihyahra except for a few torn clothes. When news of this reached the Banu Dubaib, which was a branch of the Banu Juzam, some of whom had become Muslim, they chased this party of the Banu Juzam and reclaimed the stolen goods. Dihyahra took these goods and returned to Medina. Upon reaching there, Dihyahra related all the circumstances to the Holy Prophetsa, upon which the Holy Prophetsa sent Hazrat Zaidra bin Haritha, and sent Dihyahra along with Zaidra as well.
“The squadron of Zaidra progressed forward to Hisma, journeying very intelligently and cautiously, hiding at day and travelling by night. They attacked the Banu Juzam in the morning exactly. The Banu Juzam retaliated but were unable to successfully confront the sudden attack of the Muslims and fled after a brief fight. The battlefield remained in the dominance of the Muslims and Hazrat Zaidra bin Haritha returned with many goods, wealth and cattle, as well as approximately 100 prisoners. However, Zaidra had not yet reached Medina when the Banu Dubaib tribe, which was a branch of the Banu Juzam, received news of this expedition of Zaidra. In the company of their chieftain, Rifa‘ah bin Zaidra, they presented themselves before the Holy Prophetsa and said, ‘O Messengersa of Allah! We have become Muslims and we have been granted a written document for the protection of the rest of our people. Why then were the people of our tribe included in this attack?’ The Holy Prophetsa responded, ‘Yes, you are correct, but Zaid was not aware of this.’ The Holy Prophetsa repeatedly expressed his grief for the people who were killed on this occasion. Upon this, a companion of Rifa‘ahra named Abu Zaidra said, ‘O Messengersa of Allah! We ask nothing for those who were killed, this was an accident due to a misunderstanding which has passed. But as for those who are alive, the property of our tribe which has been seized by Zaid should be returned to us.’ The Holy Prophetsa said, ‘Yes, you are correct,’ and he immediately sent Hazrat Alira towards Zaidra. He also sent his own sword as a symbol with the message to Zaidra that all the prisoners and wealth which had been seized from this tribe be released at once. Upon receiving this order, Zaidra immediately released the prisoners and returned the wealth acquired in spoils as well.” (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra, pp. 681-682)
Thus, this was the noble example of the Holy Prophetsa in relation to honouring his covenant. He did not inflict any injustice upon them. It is possible that some of the tribes may have intentionally took part in the battle, but since this was a misunderstanding on the part of the Muslims, therefore the Holy Prophetsa released them all and retuned their wealth.
Then there is mention of another expedition of Hazrat Zaidra bin Haritha towards Wadi al-Qura which took place in Rajab 6 AH. It is stated:
“After approximately one month after the expeditionof Hisma, the Holy Prophetsa once again sent Zaidra bin Haritha to Wadi al-Qura. When the squadron of Zaidra bin Haritha reached Wadi al-Qura, the people of the Banu Fuzarah were ready for combat. As such, numerous Muslims were martyred in this expedition, and even Zaidra himself was badly wounded, but God saved him by His grace.”
Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahibra states,
“Wadi al-Qura, which has been mentioned with relevance to this expedition, is an inhabited valley situated on the Syrian route north of Medina, wherein many settlements resided. This is why it became known as Wadi al-Qura, i.e. the Valley of Settlements.” (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra, pp. 682-683)
The Battle of Mu‘tah took place in 8 AH. Mu‘tah is a place near Balqa in Syria. Describing the causes and motives behind this battle, Allamah Ibn Saad writes that the Messengersa of Allah appointed Harith bin Umair as an envoy and sent him with a letter to the king of Basra. When he arrived at Mu‘tah, he was martyred by Shurahbeel bin Amr Ghassani. None of the envoys of the Holy Prophetsa were martyred except Hazrat Harith bin Umair. In any case, this incident was very distressing for the Holy Prophetsa.
When he called the people, who numbered 3,000, they immediately gathered in Jurf. The Holy Prophetsa announced that Zaidra bin Harithah was the commander over all of them. He prepared a white flag to give to Hazrat Zaidra and instructed him, “Go to the place where Harith bin Umair was martyred and to convey the message of Islam to those people. If they accept, then well and good. Otherwise, beseech Allah’s help against them and fight against them.”
The Battle of Mu‘tah was fought in 8 AH, during the month of Jamadi al-Awwal. (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 2, pp. 97-98, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 34, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990)
It is narrated by Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar, “Allah’s Messengersa appointed Zaidra bin Haritha as the commander of the army during the Battle of Mu‘tah and said, ‘If Zaid is martyred, Jafar should take over his position, and if Jafar is martyred, Abdullah bin Rawaha should take over his position.’” This army is also called “Jaishul Umaraa” [Army of Leaders]. (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab-ul-Maghazi, Baab Ghazwah Mautah, Hadith no. 4261) (Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 7, p. 505, Hadith no. 22918)
This is mentioned in Sahih al-Bukhari as well as Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal. It is also mentioned in the narration in which Hazrat Jafarra said to the Messengersa of Allah, “I did not think that you would appoint Zaid as an Amir over me.” The Holy Prophetsa replied, “Never mind about that for you do not know what is better.” (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 34, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990)
Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra, while mentioning the Battle of Mu‘tah, said … (I have alluded to this particular incident a few weeks, or months, ago. Nevertheless, since I am mentioning accounts of Hazrat Zaidra, I will repeat this again.)
Hazrat Musleh Maudra writes:
“The Holy Prophetsa appointed Hazrat Zaidra as the commander of this military campaign. However, he also added, ‘I am appointing Zaidra as the commander of the army. If Zaidra is killed while fighting, Jafarra should take over the command in his position, and if Jafarra is killed, Abdullahra bin Rawaha should take over the command and even if he is killed then anyone whom the Muslims collectively agree upon, should take up the command of the army.’ As he said these words, a Jew was also sitting in his company. He said, ‘Although I do not believe you to be a prophet, but if you are truthful then none of these three individuals would return alive because anything uttered by a prophet is certainly fulfilled.’”
(In the previous sermon when I quoted this incident, it mentioned that the Jew went to Hazrat Zaidra and stated the aforementioned)
Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra further states:
“At this, Hazrat Zaidra replied, ‘Regardless of whether I return from this battle alive or not, it is an undeniable truth that our Messengersa is truthful.’ Allah’s wisdom so ordained that this incident was fulfilled exactly as foretold. Hazrat Zaidra was martyred. Then, Hazart Jafarra took up the command and he too was martyred. Then, Hazrat Abdullahra bin Rawaha took up the command of the army and was also martyred. It was possible that in this moment, the Muslim army could have dispersed but Hazrat Khalidra bin Waleed took the flag in his hand on the behest of the Muslims. Allah gave victory to the Muslims through him and he returned the army safely.” (Fareeza-e-Tabligh Aur Ahmadi Khawateen, Anwar-ul-Aloom, Vol. 18, p. 406-406)
In Bukhari, we find this narration in the following manner. Hazrat Anasra bin Malik narrates that the Holy Prophetsa said that Zaidra took the flag and was martyred. Following this, Jafarra grabbed hold of it and was also martyred. Then, Abdullahra bin Rawaha took the flag and he was martyred as well. As the Holy Prophetsa made this announcement, tears were flowing from his eyes. The Holy Prophetsa then said that following this, Khalid bin Waleed grabbed hold of the flag even though he was not among the appointed leaders and he was granted victory. (Sahih Al-Bukhari, Kitab-ul-Janaiz, Hadith no. 1246)
When the news of the martyrdom of Hazrat Zaidra bin Haritha, Hazrat Jafarra and Hazrat Abdullahra bin Rawaha reached the Holy Prophetsa, he stood up and informed them first about Zaidra, “O Allah, forgive Zaid! O Allah, forgive Zaid! O Allah, forgive Zaid!” Following this, the Holy Prophetsa said, “O Allah, forgive Jafar and Abdullah bin Rawaha.” (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 34, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990),
Hazrat Aishara relates that when Hazrat Zaidra bin Haritha, Hazrat Jafarra and Abdullahra bin Rawaha were martyred, the Holy Prophetsa sat down in the mosque and signs of grief and sorrow were visible on his face. (Sunan Abi Daud, Kitab-ul-Janaiz, Hadith no. 3122)
In Tabaqat-ul-Kubra it is written that when Hazrat Zaidra was martyred, the Holy Prophetsa went to his family in order to offer his condolences. When the Holy Prophetsa went there, his daughter was in such a state where signs of weeping were visible on her face. Upon this, tears started to flow from the eyes of the Holy Prophetsa as well. Hazrat Zaidra bin Abada said, “O Prophet of Allah, what is this? Tears are flowing from your eyes!” The Holy Prophetsa replied:
ھٰذَا شَوْقُ الْحَبِیْبِ اِلٰی حَبِیْبِہٖ
That is, “This is the love of a beloved for his beloved.” (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 34, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990)
Mentioning the martyrdom of Hazrat Zaidra, Allama ibn Saad writes that the Holy Prophetsa appointed Hazrat Zaidra bin Haritha as the leader of the army sent to Mu‘tah and, in fact, gave him preference above all the other leaders appointed for this expedition. When the Muslims and the idolaters confronted each other, the leaders appointed by Holy Prophetsa were fighting on foot. Hazrat Zaidra took the flag and commenced the battle and others also joined him in the battle. During the battle, Hazrat Zaidra was pierced by a spear and was martyred as a result. At the time of his martyrdom, he was fifty-five years old. The Holy Prophetsa led the funeral prayer of Hazrat Zaidra and said, “O people! Seek forgiveness for Zaid, he swiftly entered the abode of paradise.” (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, pp. 33-34, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990),
Hazrat Usamara, the son of Hazrat Zaidra, relates that the Holy Prophetsa would take him, i.e. Hazrat Usamara, and Hasanra and say, “O Allah! Love both of these as I love both of them.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari, Kitab-ul-Fazail Ashaab-e-Nabi, Hadith no. 3735)
Hazrat Jabalara relates that until the Holy Prophetsa set out for a battle, he would not give his weapons to anyone but Hazrat Alira and Hazrat Zaidra. (Kanzul Ummal, Vol. 13, p. 397, Hadith no. 37066, Muithitha Al-Risala, Beirut, 1985)
Hazrat Jabalara mentions another narration that the Holy Prophetsa was given two camel saddles as a gift. He kept one himself and gave the other one to Hazrat Zaidra. (Kanzul Ummal, Vol. 13, p. 397, Hadith no. 37067, Muithitha Al-Risala, Beirut, 1985)
Hazrat Jabalara relates another tradition that the Holy Prophetsa was gifted two cloaks. He kept one for himself and gave the other one to Hazrat Zaidra. (Al-Mustadrik Ala’ Sahihain Li Al-Hakim, Vol. 3, p. 241, Kitab Marifat Al-Sahaba, Hadith no. 4963, Dar-ul-Kutb Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2002)
In another place it is mentioned that Hazrat Zaidra bin Haritha was called the beloved of the Holy Prophetsa. In relation to Hazrat Zaidra, the Holy Prophetsa said, “The most beloved to me from among the people is he on whom Allah has bestowed His favour; and that is Zaid.” Allah the Exalted bestowed His favour upon him through his acceptance of Islam and the Holy Prophetsa did so by granting him freedom.” (Al-Istiaab Fi Ma‘rifa Al-Sahab, Vol. 2, p. 117, Zaid bin Haritha, Dar-ul-Kutb Al-ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2010)
The gist of what history books have recorded about the Battle of Mu‘tah is that in order to respond to the earlier battle that took place in Mu‘tah, the Holy Prophetsa prepared a huge army in the month of Safar during the 11th year following the migration and the Holy Prophetsa instructed the people to prepare for battle against the Byzantine Empire. Although there is no direct connection with this particular battle to Zaidra bin Harithah as he was martyred in the earlier battle that took place at Mu‘tah, nonetheless his name is mentioned in reference to the preparation of the army, therefore I shall mention that part of history here.
A part of this has probably been mentioned already a while ago during the mention of Hazrat Usamara. In any case, Hazrat Usamara had not taken part in the Battle of Badr – at the time of the battle he was far too young – but because at that time I was mentioning the Companionsra in general, therefore he was also mentioned with reference to it. Nonetheless, on the day after this army was prepared, the Holy Prophetsa called over Hazrat Usama bin Zaidra, and, handing over the command of this expedition to Hazrat Usamara, said, “Go towards the place where your father was martyred,” and, regarding their departure toward the region of Syria, the Holy Prophetsa said, “When you depart, travel swiftly and reach the enemy before news of your approach reaches them. Then, first thing in the morning, attack the Ahl-e-Ubna (i.e. the people of Balqa).”
In Syria, Balqa is the name of a region situated near Mu‘tah which was where the Battle of Mu‘tah took place. And Balqa is a region situated in Syria between Damascus and the Valley of Quraa. With regard to this place, it is recorded that a person from the progeny of Prophet Lotas named Baaliq populated the area. In relation to Daroom, it is stated that it is a place found in Palestine, near Ghaza, which is situated on the route to Egypt.
In any case, the Holy Prophetsa instructed them, “Raze these places to the ground with your horses, to avenge Hazrat Zaidra.”
The Holy Prophetsa further said to Usamara, “Take guides who can show you the way as well, and also take such people as can perform the duty of reconnaissance – people who can properly inform you of the prevailing situation and circumstances there. May God Almighty grant you success, and return quickly.”
At the time of this battle, the age of Hazrat Usamara was between 17 and 20 years old. The Holy Prophetsa tied a flag with his own hands and said to Usamara, “With the name of Allah, strive in His path and battle him who denies God.” Hazrat Usamara took this flag in his hands and left, delegating the flag’s responsibility to Hazrat Buraidahra. This army began to gather at a place called Juruf. Juruf is also a place situated about three miles from Medina. The total number of this army is recorded as 3,000. All of the Ansar and Muhajireen companions of the Holy Prophetsa were part of this army. Among them were some very prominent companions such as Hazrat Abu Bakrra, Hazrat Umarra, Hazrat Ubaidahra bin Al-Jaraah, and Hazrat Saadra bin Abi Waqas, but the commander appointed over this army was Hazrat Usamara, who was only 17 or 18 years old. Some individuals did object that a young boy had been made the Amir at such a young age over the companions who migrated with the Holy Prophetsa in the very early period of Islam. At this, the Prophetsa of Allah expressed his displeasure. He had a cloth tied around his head and had over himself a mantle. He stood at the pulpit and announced, “O ye people, what is this thing that has reached me which you say about Usamara being made commander over you? If you have objected my decision in making Usama the Amir over you, then know that you have also objected to my appointment of his father as Amir before this.”
Then, the Holy Prophetsa went on to say, “I swear to God, he also possessed the qualities of leadership, (referring to Hazrat Zaidra bin Harithah) and after him, his son also possesses within himself the qualities of leadership. He was among those people who were dearest to me, and both of these (meaning father and son) deserve all the good in the world.”
Then, the Holy Prophetsa instructed, “So take a lesson of goodness from him, meaning Hazrat Usamara, for he is among the very best of you.”
This took two days prior to the Holy Prophet’ssa demise, i.e. Saturday, 10 Rabi al-Awwal. The Muslims departing with Hazrat Usamara had said farewell to the Holy Prophetsa and joined the army at a place called Juruf. The illness of the Holy Prophetsa had increased, yet he continued to insist on sending forth the army of Hazrat Usamara.
On the Sunday, the state of the Holy Prophetsa had worsened even further and Usama returned, the Holy Prophetsa was in a state of semi-consciousness and people were giving him medicine that day. Hazrat Usamara lowered his head and kissed the Holy Prophetsa. The Holy Prophetsa could not speak, but he raised both his hands to the sky and placed them on the head of Hazrat Usamara. Hazrat Usamara states that he understood that the Holy Prophetsa was praying for him. Hazrat Usamara then left to re-join the army. On Monday, the Holy Prophet’ssa health somewhat improved. He then said to Hazrat Usamara, “Depart with the blessings of God Almighty”. Hazrat Usamara took leave from the Holy Prophetsa and set off, instructing his men to march on.
All of a sudden, a man came and brought a message from his mother, Hazrat Umm-e-Aimanra, that it seemed the Holy Prophetsa was in his final moments and that his health had deteriorated significantly. As soon as he heard this terrible news, Hazrat Usamara returned with Hazrat Umarra and Hazrat Abu Ubaidahra to see the Holy Prophetsa. When they reached, they found him taking his last breath.
On Monday 12 Rabi al-Awwal, after sunset, the Holy Prophetsa passed away. As a result, the Muslim army returned from Juruf to Medina. Hazrat Buraidahra planted the flag of Hazrat Usamara at the door of the Holy Prophetsa. When the oath of allegiance was taken at the hand of Hazrat Abu Bakrra, he ordered Hazrat Buraidahra to take the flag to the house of Hazrat Usamara and to depart once more for the original purpose, i.e. to take the army which the Holy Prophetsa had prepared. Hazrat Buraidahra carried the flag and placed it where the army was originally stationed.
After the demise of the Holy Prophetsa, the sedition and apostasy had spread across the whole of Arabia, be it in ordinary men or men of influence, it had spread within approximately all the Arab tribes and their hypocrisy had become evident. In that period, the Jews and the Christians were staring in amazement, eager to see what happens next and began also making preparations to take revenge.
With the demise of the Holy Prophetsa and due to the small number of Muslims, their state was like that of a sheep during the night of a storm. The Muslims were in a very dire situation. Prominent companions had suggested to Hazrat Abu Bakrra that due to the severity of the situation, he should delay sending off the army of Hazrat Usamara and that they should be sent some time later. Hazrat Abu Bakrra refused, stating that even if beasts dragged his body around, he would still send this army in accordance with the instructions of the Holy Prophetsa and he would implement the instructions given by the Holy Prophetsa. Even if there remained not a single resident but him, he would still meet this decision. Hazrat Abu Bakrra duly upheld the decision of the Holy Prophetsa and put it into implementation by instructing all those in the army of Hazrat Usamara to re-join them in Juruf. Hazrat Abu Bakrra stated that every single person who was part of the army of Hazrat Usamara and whom the Holy Prophetsa had instructed to join must not remain behind, nor shall he ever grant them permission to do so. They must join them, even if they have to travel on foot.
Nonetheless, the army was assembled once again. Owing to the delicate situation, the Companions advised again to stop the army from leaving. According to one narration, Hazrat Usamara asked Hazrat Umarra to convince Hazrat Abu Bakrra to revoke the order of sending the army so they could remain behind to contest against those who had rebelled and protect the Khalifa and the Holy Prophet’ssa grave against an attack from the idolaters. Aside from this, some Ansari Companions said to Hazrat Umarra that if the Caliph of the Holy Prophetsa – Hazrat Abu Bakrra – was resolute on sending the army, then he ought to request Hazrat Abu Bakrra to appoint a leader of the army that is more senior in age than Usamara.
Hazrat Umarra approached Hazrat Abu Bakrra and presented the opinions of the companions to him. However once again, Hazrat Abu Bakrra replied with the same firm resolve saying, “Even if the predators of the jungle enter Medina and take me away, even then I will never revoke a directive issued by the Holy Prophetsa.”
When Hazrat Umarra informed Hazrat Abu Bakrra about the opinion of the Ansar Companions, he asserted with authority, “Usama was appointed as the leader by the Holy Prophetsa and you want me to remove him from his position!” Upon hearing the unwavering directive of Hazrat Abu Bakrra and his resolve to see it fulfilled, Hazrat Umarra met with the people who were part of the army. When the people enquired as to what happened, Hazrat Umarra replied in an angry tone saying: “Remove yourself from me immediately. It was because of you all that I was admonished today by the Khalifa of the Holy Prophetsa.”
In line with the orders of Hazrat Abu Bakrra, when Usama’s army gathered at a place called Jurf, Hazrat Abu Bakrra also came there. He met the army and arranged them himself. The scene at the time of departure was also astonishing. At the time Hazrat Usamara was riding his mount, whereas the Khalifa of the Holy Prophetsa – Hazrat Abu Bakrra – was walking beside him. Hazrat Usamara said, “O Khalifa of the Prophetsa! Either you take a mount to ride, or I will descend from mine.” Hazrat Abu Bakrra replied: “By God! Neither shall you descend from your mount, nor will I take a mount for myself. Am I not able to use my two feet and stride forward in the cause of Allah? Each time a ghazi [one who fights in the cause of God] takes a step, God Almighty rewards him the equivalent of 700 good deeds and he is elevated 700 times in rank, as well as having 700 of his sins forgiven.”
Hazrat Abu Bakrra required the assistance of Hazrat Umarra in Medina for several matters. However, Hazrat Abu Bakrra did not keep Hazrat Umarra behind on his own accord. Instead he sought permission from Hazrat Usama that if he deemed appropriate to grant Hazrat Umarra permission to remain behind. Hazrat Usamara responded to the call of the Khalifa and permitted Hazrat Umarra to remain behind. After this incident, every time Hazrat Umarra would meet Hazrat Usamara, he would address him, saying:
اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَیْکَ أَیُّھَا الْأَمِیْرُ
“Peace be upon you, O leader”. In response, Hazrat Usamara would say:
غَفَرَ اللّٰہُ لَکَ یَا أَمِیْرَ الْمُؤْمِنِیْن
“O Leader of the Faithful! May God Almighty shower His forgiveness upon you.”
In the end, Hazrat Abu Bakrra gave the following words of advice to the army:
“Do not show disloyalty nor break your covenant; do not commit theft, do not mutilate any corpses of the enemies; do not kill young children, women and the elderly; do not cut date palm trees nor burn them; do not injure any sheep, cow or camel except for those you slaughter for consumption.” He then further stated: “You will pass by a people who have withdrawn to the Church for worship, leave them be. Similarly, there will be people who bring you food in dishes to eat. If you wish to eat therefrom, you ought to recite Bismillah [In the name of Allah] before eating. Then you will certainly meet a people who would have shaved their heads from the middle, but will have locks of hair on the sides. For them you ought to strike them slightly with your swords and then defend yourselves. May God Almighty protect you from all slander and safeguard you from the epidemic of the plague.”
Hazrat Abu Bakrra then turned to Hazrat Usamara and said, “Carry out all the tasks assigned to you by the Holy Prophetsa.”
Through this conversation, whilst on the one hand Hazrat Abu Bakrra taught Hazrat Usamara the Islamic etiquette of war – in which one cannot commit injustice against anyone else – on the other hand, it is also evident that Hazrat Abu Bakrra was convinced that this army would be victorious. That is why he said, “You will be granted victories.”
Thus, Hazrat Usamara set off on the 1st of Rabi al-Aakhir, 11 AH. Hazrat Usamara and his army travelled for days on end and according to the instructions of the Holy Prophetsa, they eventually reached the area in Syria known as Ubna. The following morning, the army attacked the inhabitants from all four sides. The slogan raised on this occasion was:
Meaning, “O You, who have been granted divine succour, fight!”
In this battle, whoever came up against a Muslim mujahid [one who performs Jihad in the way of God] was killed and many were taken prisoners. They gained a large amount of spoils from the war, from which one-fifth was taken out and the rest distributed amongst the army. The portion for the one riding a mount was twice as much as those on foot. After the battle, the army camped in this very place for one day and then set off for Medina the following day.
Hazrat Usamara sent an individual ahead of the army to Medina to relay the good news. In this battle, not a single Muslim was martyred. When this triumphant army returned to Medina, Hazrat Abu Bakrra, along with the Ansar and Muhajireen, went outside of Medina to welcome them. Hazrat Buraidahra was waving the flag ahead of the army. Upon reaching Medina, the army went to Masjid Nabawi. Hazrat Usamara offered two nawafil [voluntary prayers] and then went home. According to varying narrations, this army spent between 40 and 70 days outside of Medina. Sending the army of Usamara proved to be beneficial for the Muslims because the people of Arabia had begun to say that if the Muslims were weak and frail, they would never send this army on the expedition. Thus, through this, many of the disbelievers became alerted and refrained from carrying out their plans against the Muslims. (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 2, pp. 145-147, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) (As-Siratul Halabiyyah, Vol. 3, pp. 291-294, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2002) (Al-Kaamil fi Tarikh, Vol. 2, pp. 199-200, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2006) (Mujam-ul-Buldan, Vol. 1, p. 579)
Through the grace of Allah and His Support, Hazrat Usamara fulfilled the words of the Holy Prophetsa to the letter. In terms of organisation and management of the army, he was very successful and this expedition proved to be a great triumph. The Holy Prophetsa had stated that Hazrat Usamara was an exceptional leader. God Almighty’s grace, the prayers of the Holy Prophetsa and his Khalifa proved that Hazrat Usamara, like his martyred father Hazrat Zaidra, was not only worthy to lead, but he also had a lofty status owing to his morals and qualities. It was the firm resolve and tremendous courage of the Khalifa that he sent this army, despite several internal and external dangers as well as certain allegations. Then through the triumph and success, God Almighty taught the Muslims their first lesson that after the demise of the Holy Prophetsa, all blessings lie in the obedience to Khilafat.
The Promised Messiahas has mentioned this in his book Sirrul Khilafah. (Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 8, p. 394, footnote)
Nevertheless, may God Almighty shower His boundless mercy on Hazrat Zaid bin Harithara and his son, Hazrat Usamasa, who were the beloved and dear ones of our master and guide, the Holy Prophetsa.
After the Friday prayers, I will lead two funeral prayers in absentia.
The first funeral prayer is of Mr Siddique Adam Dumbia Sahib, who was a missionary serving in the Ivory Coast. He had been unwell for quite some time and had an operation for his prostate last year. Similarly, he had some complications with his kidneys and was on dialysis. Owing to his ongoing treatment he was staying in Abidjan. Recently his health deteriorated and was subsequently taken to the Military Hospital, where he passed away on 14 June; Surely, to Allah we belong and to Him shall we return.
Siddique Adam Sahib was born in Lausangeh, a village in the Ivory Coast, in 1950. He accepted Ahmadiyyat a short while before 1977. Aside from his wife, he is survived by 7 daughters and 2 sons. Having dedicated his life for the services of the Jamaat in 1981, he travelled to Pakistan on foot with two other friends. They travelled for approximately 1 year and enduring the hardships of the journey, they eventually arrived in Rabwah in 1982 and began studying in Jamia Ahmadiyya. He completed his studies in 1985/86 and then returned to the Ivory Coast. Until his demise, he had the opportunity to serve as a missionary in various countries of West Africa for a period of over 30 years.
The details of his journey to Pakistan is as follows:
When Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IIIrh toured Ghana, the visit of the Khalifa of the time brought about a revolutionary transformation within him. He returned to Ivory Coast and arranged for his passport to be made and then along with his friend, made preparations to travel to Pakistan in order to meet the Khalifa. During that same period, a young man from Mali, Umar Maaz Sahib, who is now a missionary of the community, came to the mosque in Abidjan and accepted Ahmadiyyat owing to a dream he had seen. A few days after accepting Ahmadiyyat, Umar Maaz Sahib expressed his strong desire visit the town of the Promised Messiahas and also to meet the Khalifa of the Promised Messiahas. Thus, all three of them decided to travel to Pakistan and began their journey on 20 August 1981.
They set off from Ivory Coast and in the first leg of their journey, they arrived at Ghana and met Wahab Adam Sahib, who was serving as the Amir and Missionary-in-Charge. After offering supplications and prayers, they travelled across Benin from Togo and reached Lagos, a city in Nigeria. After stopping at the mission house in Lagos, the missionary-in-charge there also bade them farewell with prayers and supplications and were also given some financial help, before setting off for Cameroon.
They entered Chad via Cameroon and whilst in Chad, they were imprisoned and had to endure great difficulties. Nonetheless, they remained patient and steadfast and continued on with their journey. It was virtually impossible to continue on with their journey from Chad, however God Almighty guided them through a dream by telling them to join the army. Thus, they tried to join the Libyan army and God Almighty granted them miraculous help and the impossible was made possible. There was a time when the Libyan government decided to expel all foreigners from the country, however God Almighty made such provisions that not only was this ruling overturned, but they were also permitted to join the Libyan army on a voluntary basis and were commissioned to serve protecting its frontiers for almost 8 months.
When the war was over, they expressed their desire to travel to Pakistan to their officer-in-charge. Their superior told them to stay with them for a little longer and said he would arrange for them an international passport to travel to the USA and that they could go there instead of Pakistan. They thanked him for the offer but declined and told him that they would like to go Pakistan for the purpose of studies. The Pakistani Embassy refused to grant them a visa, but through their army in-charge, God Almighty provided them with an air ticket for Karachi and thus they arrived at the airport on 27 November 1982 in order to travel to Pakistan.
Once more they witnessed the help of God Almighty. Their army in-charge introduced them to a police officer and told him that they were travelling to Pakistan to seek Islamic studies and requested him to assist them in every way possible. The police officer helped them greatly and their aeroplane left from Damascus in the night and arrived at Karachi in the morning. Although they had arrived at Karachi but were concerned as they did not have a visa.
After supplication and prayers, they presented their passports to the passport control officer, who asked them a few questions and they told him that they were travelling to Pakistan for the purpose of study. Subsequently, the officer stamped and signed their passports and then asked them where they will be travelling to in Pakistan. They told him that they wanted to go to Rabwah, upon which he enquired whether they were Qadiani [i.e. Ahmadis]. Before any ill thought could enter his mind and consequently influence him to cancel the stamp he had issued, one of his colleagues said that even if they were Ahmadi, just let them go as they are only here for the purpose of studies. Nonetheless, they had such a strong desire and passion to go to Rabwah and meet the Khalifa of the Promised Messiahas, they did not even realise to enquire whether there was a Jamaat in Karachi or any local member who they could in get touch with so that their journey could be made somewhat easier. However, without making any contact with the local Jamaat, they headed straight to the railway station and asked to purchase a train ticket to Rabwah.
The person issuing the tickets at the station was a very selfish person and filled with prejudice; he said that they did not issue tickets to Ahmadis. However, after arguing with him for two hours, he gave them the ticket for the cheapest carriage and charged them double the price. It took them 24 hours to reach Rabwah from Karachi. However, they had an intense desire to meet the Khalifa of the Promised Messiahas and they endured such a difficult journey to finally reach Rabwah.
After reaching Rabwah, they went to Dar-ul-Ziafat. They did not speak Urdu, however when they heard the words, “Khalifatul Masih IV” being uttered by everyone around them, they became a little apprehensive and enquired about the matter and were subsequently informed that Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IIIrh had passed away and now Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IVrh had become the Khalifa. They then had the opportunity to meet Hazrat Khalifatul Masih and in 1982, they enrolled in Jamia.
After completing his studies in Jamia, he returned to Ivory Coast and was posted to serve in various countries. From 1987 to 1991, he was posted in Ivory Coast; from 1991 to 1992, he served in Niger; from 1992 to 1994, he served in Benin; from 1994 to 1996, he served in Togo and from 1996 till his demise, he served in Ivory Coast.
Basit Sahib, a missionary from the Ivory Coast, writes that Siddique Adam Sahib had a deep love for Khilafat and was a devoted servant of the community. He states that he had the opportunity to work with him for a very long period of time and he was very regular in his prayers and in offering the Tahajud and was blessed with true dreams. He also had a great ability to offer interpretations of dreams and would often relate the meanings of the dreams of his friends and relatives.
He would regularly submit his monthly report to the Markaz [central headquarters of the Jamaat] (and he would regularly write to me for prayers as well and it was his habit to always write in Urdu). He was extremely pious and very punctual and took all of his responsibilities seriously. He would always be mindful of being punctual and whatever work was assigned to him, he would ensure to complete it within the set time. He was always ready and willing to go on long tours and would carry out his preaching efforts in a very loving and soft tone. He would always mention the evils of the Dajjal, the signs of its advent and the current ills of the time and would then speak about the advent of the Imam Mahdi. Those listening to him would always be impressed by his style of speech and would always achieve success in his tabligh efforts.
Owing to his tabligh tours in the north of the country, God Almighty rewarded his efforts with thousands of converts. He would always mention his journey to Pakistan and also the grace God Almighty granted to him. As a proof of the truthfulness of the Promised Messiahas, he would always give the example of how God Almighty has granted helpers to the Promised Messiahas in even far-off lands, who are willing to make sacrifices in the way of faith and how God Almighty would grant them His rewards and thus grant help and succour to His beloved Mahdi.
Siddique Adam Sahib’s style of speech was extremely attractive for the locals who spoke the local language, Jula. He would also present programmes on the radio. These programmes were of a very high standard and were very popular.
May God Almighty grant him His forgiveness and mercy and elevate his station. May He also grant his children patience and steadfastness and enable them to continue his good deeds.
The second funeral prayer is of Mian Ghulam Mustafa Sahib Mirak from the district of Okara. He passed away on 24 June at the age of 83 – To Allah we belong and to Him shall we return.
The deceased was Ahmadi by birth and had great passion for worship. He was very regular in the congregational prayers and also in offering the Tahajud prayer and would call the Fajr Azan at his local mosque. He would always wake his family members up for Fajr and God Almighty had granted him the ability to observe the fasts of Ramadan right till his demise.
He had a great desire for tabligh and would always, in some way or another, convey the message of Ahmadiyyat to everyone he met. He was a very sociable, pious and sincere individual. He had a great bond of love with Khilafat and would regularly listen to the Friday Sermons and would also encourage his children to listen as well. He would always serve the official guests who had come from the headquarters and was always at the forefront in offering financial sacrifices.
He also had the opportunity to build a well in Tharparkar and provide water to the thirsty. He organised all his Wasiyyat payments prior to his demise. A few years before his demise, he had the opportunity to donate his house to the Jamaat and moved into a small room in the mosque. The house is currently being used as an accommodation for the local missionary. The deceased was a musi [pledged himself to the scheme of Wasiyyat] and leaves behind 5 daughters and 3 sons. He is the father of Ghulam Murtaza Sahib, who is serving as a missionary in Burundi and was not able to go back for his father’s funeral. He was not able to return to Pakistan for his mother’s funeral either. Ghulam Murtaza Sahib thus endured these two tragedies with great patience and steadfastness. May God Almighty further increase him in his patience and steadfastness and enable him to fulfil his Waqf with loyalty.
Two of his grandsons, Qasim Mustafa Sahib and Muhammad Safeer-ul-Din Sahib, are both serving as missionaries. Another grandson, Bilal Ahmad, is a Waqf-e-Nau and became a doctor this year and entered the field of Waqf.
May God Almighty grant him His mercy and forgiveness and elevate his station. Ghulam Murtaza Sahib, who is a missionary, is busy conveying the message of God away from his homeland and as I said, he could not go back for the funeral. May God Almighty grant him patience and steadfastness to bear this loss.
After the Friday prayers, Insha-Allah I will lead their funeral prayers in absentia.
(Translated by The Review of Religions. Originally published in Al Fazl International 19 July 2019, pp. 5-10)