Names of Allah: al-Qāhir, al-Qahhār, al-Jabbār, az-Zāhir, al-Bātin, al-‘Azīz, al-Mu’izz, al-Mudhill, ar-Rāfi’, al-Khāfid, al-Karīm, al-Jawād

Rizwan Khan, Missionary, USA
Malik Shibly | Unsplash
Malik Shibly | Unsplash

35. Yā Qāhir – O Supreme! – يا قاهر

36. Yā Qahhār – O Most Supreme! – يا قهّار


The root of qāhir means to overcome, conquer, subdue, subjugate, overpower, or prevail over. Al-Qāhir is The Overcomer and The Subduer. (Lane’s Lexicon, Root: قهر Entry: قهر، قَاهرٌ) The name Al-Qāhir (The Supreme) does not necessarily have a connotation of anger. Rather, it speaks of the supreme dominance of Allah Almighty over all, both believers and disbelievers. (Haqaiq-ul-Furqan, Surah al-An’am 6:62, Vol. 2, p. 156) However, the word qahhār (قهّار) is the more intensive form of qāhir (قاهر). The name Al-Qahhār (The Most Supreme) emphasises its application of supporting believers against disbelievers. It refers to the One Who breaks the powerful among His enemies and subdues them by destroying them. It emphasises how everyone is powerless in the grasp of His dominating power. (The Ninety-Nine Beautiful Names of God, al-Ghazali, p. 74)

Similar Names

Al-Qawiyy (The Strong), Al-Matīn (The Firm), and Al-Qahhar (The Most Supreme) all refer to power, but with something more added. Qawiyy and Matīn refer to how the description of power is intensified through the concept of strength and firmness. However, Qahhār refers to the effect of that power on those who are overpowered and conquered. (The Ninety-Nine Beautiful Names of God, al-Ghazali, p. 161)

To simplify, Qādir (Possessor of Power) refers to possessing ability, Qawiyy (Strong) refers to the strength to exercise that ability, and Qahhār (Most Supreme) refers to the effect of exercising that ability.

This name is also mentioned under Az-Zāhir (The Manifest), Al-‘Azīz (The Mighty), and Al-‘Aliyy (The Ever-Exalted).

Use in Prayer

When we pray, the name Al-Qahhār (The Most Supreme) brings to mind the awe-inspiring effect of the power of Allah Almighty when He subdues and dominates. When we say Yā Qahhār (O Most Supreme!), we pray that Allah Almighty conquer and subdue the enemies of His servants.

37. Yā Jabbār – O Subduer! – يا جبّار


The word jabara means to set a fractured bone back in place. When we break a bone, it is cured by being forced back into place. Jabara also means to compel someone against their will and to induce someone to restore something to a good state. (Lane’s Lexicon, Root: جبر Entry: جبر، جَبَّارٌ) Al-Jabbār is the One Who reforms, and the One Who can compel His creatures to obey the commands He wishes. However, it should be clear here that this does not denote any compulsion because Allah Almighty has put right and wrong before us and taught that we will receive recompense according to our choices. (Friday Sermon, 16 May 2008, Khutbat-e-Masroor, Vol. 6, pp. 194-195; Friday Sermon, 12 Apr 2002)

Similar Names

Al-Qahhār (The Most Supreme) emphasises conquest and subjugation to bring about the destruction of disbelievers. Al-Jabbār (The Subduer) emphasises subduing and compelling to bring about reformation. Al-Qahhār (The Most Supreme) primarily applies to disbelievers, whereas Al-Jabbār (The Subduer) also applies to believers.

This name is also mentioned under Al-Mutakabbir (The Great in Majesty).

Use in Prayer

The word jabbār emphasises reformation. (Friday Sermon, 16 May 2008, Khutbat-e-Masroor, Vol. 6, pp. 194-195) The Holy Prophetsa taught us to pray, اجْبُرْنِي, (Jami’ al-Tirmidhi, Kitab as-Salah, Bab Ma Yaqulu Bainas-Sajdatain) meaning ‘reform me’ or ‘make good for me my shortcomings’.

When we say Yā Jabbār (O Subduer!), we express a willingness to face whatever treatment is needed for our spiritual health. We don’t leave a broken bone as it is; we brace ourselves for what we know needs to be done. We don’t go to the doctor and say that we will only accept a treatment that doesn’t involve pain. We go, ready to accept whatever they say. Similarly, when we say Yā Jabbār (O Subduer!), we summon the courage to bear whatever treatment is needed. We put ourselves in the hands of Al-Jabbār (The Subduer), prepared for any procedure necessary to restore us to a good state.

When we say Yā Jabbār (O Subduer!), we beg Allah Almighty to compel us to reform ourselves. For example, many people enlist in the military to develop a military-like discipline in their lives. Although they can achieve the same discipline enforced in boot camp, they know they don’t have the willpower and strength to do it on their own at home. What they need is a cast that will hold them in place for months until they form the habits they want. They put themselves into boot camp, where a standard of discipline is forced on them for a period of time. Their drill instructors don’t deprive them of their freedom because they voluntarily chose to have their choices taken away. When we say Yā Jabbār (O Subduer!), we beg Allah Almighty to subdue us and to compel us to reform ourselves.

38. Yā Zāhir – O Manifest! – يا ظاهر

39. Yā Bātin – O Hidden! – يا باطن


The root of zāhir means apparent or perceptible, and the root of bātin means unapparent or hidden. Az-Zāhir means He Who is Perceptible because His signs and actions are apparent. Al-Bātin means He Who is Imperceptible because His essence is hidden. Also, Az-Zāhir means the Predominant, and Al-Bātin means He Who knows hidden things. (Al-Mufradat, al-Rāghib, Root: بطن; Lisan al-‘Arab, Ibn Manzur, Root: ظهر; Lisan al-‘Arab, Ibn Manzur, Root: بطن; Lane’s Lexicon, Root: ظهر Entry: ظَاهِرٌ; Lane’s Lexicon, Root: بطن Entry: بَاطِنٌ)

Similar Names

Az-Zāhir (The Manifest) and Al-Bātin (The Hidden) are opposites.

Az-Zāhir (The Manifest), Al-Qāhir (The Supreme), and Al-‘Azīz (The Mighty) are synonymous in their meaning of predominance and overcoming. (Al-Bahr al-Muhit, Abu Hayyan, Al-Hadid 57:4, See “الظاهر: العالي على كل شيء، الغالب له من ظهر عليه إذا علاه وغلبه”)

Al-Bātin (The Hidden) and Al-Khabīr (The All-Aware) are synonymous in their meaning of knowing what is hidden. (Lisan al-‘Arab, Ibn Manzur, Root: شهد, See “وإِذا أُضيف في الأُمور الباطنة، فهو الخبير، وإِذا أُضيف إِلى الأُمور الظاهرة، فهو الشهيد”)

This name is also mentioned under An-Nūr (The Light).

Use in Prayer

The name Az-Zāhir (The Manifest) reminds us that the actions of Allah Almighty are visible in everything. When we see His actions, we see Him everywhere. However, the name Al-Bātin (The Hidden) reminds us that these actions are just signs; the essence of Allah Almighty is hidden beyond our understanding. Az-Zāhir (The Manifest) refers to the signs of Allah, and Al-Bātin (The Hidden) refers to His essence. (Al-Mufradat, al-Raghib, Root: بطن) When we say Yā Zāhir (O Manifest!), we pray to Allah Almighty while seeing His signs all around us. We pray as if we are seeing Him. Then, when we say Yā Bātin (O Hidden!), we are humbled to realise that we have, in fact, not seen Him at all because His essence is beyond our perception.

The Holy Prophetsa said, “You are The Manifest (Az-Zāhir) and there is nothing superior to You, and You are The Hidden (Al-Bātin) and there is nothing besides You.” (Sahih Muslim, Kitab az-zikr, Bab ma yaqulu ‘ind n-nawm; Translation of Hadith from Haqaiq-ul-Furqan, Surah al-Hadīd 57:4, Vol. 4, p. 53) This Hadith describes how Allah Almighty is Az-Zāhir (The Manifest) in His actions. People can be like Him in their actions to a very limited degree, but He is predominant over them. This Hadith also describes how Allah Almighty is Al-Bātin (The Hidden) in His essence. No one can be like Him in essence because He is unique and transcendent.

40. Yā ‘Azīz – O Mighty! – يا عزيز


The root of ‘azīz means mighty, powerful, or strong. It also means noble, honourable, or glorious. ‘azīz also means one who is honourable and exalted in rank. Al-‘Azīz means The Strong Who overcomes everything, and The Unattainable Who no one can overcome. (Friday Sermon, 19 Oct 2007, Khutbat-e-Masroor, Vol. 5, pp. 423-424; Lane’s Lexicon, Root: عز Entry: عزّ، عَزِيزٌ)

Similar Names

The meaning of “overcoming” in Al-‘Azīz is synonymous with the root of Al-Qāhir (The Supreme). (Al-Mufradat, al-Raghib, Root: عز, See “وَالعَزيزُ: الذي يقهر ولا يقهر”)

The meaning of “strength” in Al-‘Azīz is synonymous with Al-Qawiyy (The Strong). (Lisan al-‘Arab, Ibn Manzur, Root: عزز, See “هو القوي الغالب كل شيء”)

Al-‘Azīz (The Mighty) and Al-Mu’izz (The Honourer) come from the same root, the meaning of “honour” being found in both.

This name is also mentioned under Al-Karīm (The Generous).

Use in Prayer

Al-‘Azīz (The Mighty) is not just the One Who overcomes and conquers; this name emphasises that He overcomes because of His honour and glory. (Friday Sermon, 22 Feb 2002) The opposite of this root is dhillah (ذِلَّةٌ), which refers to the humiliation of being weak and submissive to another. (Lane’s Lexicon, Root: ذل Entry: ذلّ) There is naturally a humiliation seen in being subjected, and a glory in conquest. The root of ‘Azīz (Mighty) brings to mind the eminence projected by conquerors who seem indomitable. It is not just might and strength but also the feeling of respect it inspires.

An example of respect for might is how we look at representatives of our governments. There are many laws in our country that we may not understand or agree with, but we follow them simply out of respect for the might of the government. Some people defiantly question the commandments of Allah Almighty, but if the police ever pull over that same person, they show such respect that they do not think of questioning the officer. The name Al-‘Azīz (The Mighty) reminds us that when we already obey out of respect for people’s might, we have a greater responsibility to obey Allah Almighty out of respect for His might because He truly deserves to be honoured.

Al-‘Azīz (The Mighty) describes the glory of the invincible and overwhelming might of Allah Almighty. When we say Yā ‘Azīz (O Mighty!), we pray that the glory and might of Allah Almighty fill our hearts with an awe that makes us obedient to Him.

41. Yā Mu’izz – O Honourer! – يا معزّ

42. Yā Mudhill – O Disgracer! –

 يا مذلّ


The root of Al-Mu’izz means might and honour. The root of Al-Mudhill means despicable and weak. (Lane’s Lexicon, Root: عز Entry: المُعِزُّ; Lane’s Lexicon, Root: ذل Entry: ذلّ) Al-Mu’izz means The Honourer and Al-Mudhill means The Disgracer.

Similar Names

The roots of Al-Mu’izz and Al-Mudhill are opposites. Mu’izz has two meanings and refers to giving both honour and might. Similarly, Mudhill has two meanings and refers to causing both disgrace and weakness.

Al-‘Azīz (The Mighty) and Al-Mu’izz (The Honourer) come from the same root.

These names are also mentioned under Al-Rāfi’ (The Exalter) and Al-Khāfid (The Lowerer).

Use in Prayer

These names bring to mind how easily nations are honoured or disgraced. The Holy Quran says:

“She said, ‘Surely, kings, when they enter a country, despoil it, and turn the highest (a’izzah) of its people into the lowest (adhillah).” (Surah an-Naml, Ch.27: V.35)

We should think of any country where there was a revolution in recent history; the glory and might of rulers were broken in days no matter how indomitable they seemed, and the disgraces of the weak were forgotten when they rose to power and eminence. The names Al-Mu’izz (The Honourer) and Al-Mudhill (The Disgracer) remind us that there is no permanence in the honour of this world. Allah Almighty can give it to or take it away from whoever He wishes. When we say Yā Mu’izz (O Honourer!) and Yā Mudhill (O Disgracer!), we pray that Allah Almighty gives honour and might to His servants and that He brings disgrace and weakness on the enemies of His servants.

43. Yā Rāfi’ – O Exalter! – يا رافع

44. Yā Khāfid – O Lowerer! – يا خافض


The root of rāfi’ means to raise something. The root of khāfid means to lower something. The name Al-Rāfi’ (The Exalter) is broad and can be applied to elevating someone in rank, station, fame, honour, excellence, paradise, etc., and the name Al-Khāfid (The Lowerer) is the opposite. (Lane’s Lexicon, Root: رفع Entry: رفع; Lane’s Lexicon, Root: خفض Entry: الخَافِضُ، خفض)

Similar Names

Al-Rāfi’ (Exalter) and Al-Khāfid (Lowerer) are opposites.

Al-Mu’izz (The Honourer) and Al-Mudhill (The Disgracer) specifically refer to raising or lowering a person in honour and strength. However, Al-Rāfi’ (The Exalter) and Al-Khāfid (The Lowerer) are broad and can apply to anything.

Use in Prayer

These names remind us that Allah Almighty lowers some people to Hell even if they had been mighty in this life, and He exalts others to paradise even if they were weak in this life. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, 56:4) When we say Yā Rāfi’ (O Exalter!) and Yā Khāfid (O Lowerer!), we bring to mind the One Who raises and lowers us according to His will, and we pray that He exalts us.

The concept of being raised is directly connected with lowering ourselves in prostration. This is why the prayer of, ارْفَعْنِي “Exalt my [status],” comes right before we go into our second prostration. (Sunan Ibn Majah, Kitab iqamati s-salat, Bab ma yaqulu bayna s-sajdatayn) The Holy Prophetsa said, لاَ تَسْجُدُ لِلَّهِ سَجْدَةً إِلاَّ رَفَعَكَ اللَّهُ بِهَا دَرَجَةً “Every prostration that you perform before Allah will raise (rafa’a) you one degree.” (Sahih Muslim, Kitab as-Salah, Bab Ma Fadlis-Sujud) When we pray, ارْفَعْنِي “Exalt my [status],” we beg Allah Almighty to exalt us in acceptance of our lowering ourselves before Him.

45. Yā Karīm – O Generous! – يا كريم


The root of karīm means being highly esteemed and being generous. Karīm means generous, honourable and noble, highly esteemed and valued, and excellent. (Lane’s Lexicon, Root: كرم Entry: كرم، كَرِيمٌ)

Similar Names

Al-‘Azīz (The Mighty), Al-Karīm (The Generous), and Al-Majīd (The Ever-Noble) are synonymous in their meaning of “honour.” (Lane’s Lexicon, Root: مجد Entry: مَجْدٌ) The difference is that the honour that Al-‘Azīz (The Mighty) describes refers to the respect that overwhelming might inspires; the honour that Al-Karīm (The Generous) describes refers to the respect that generosity inspires.

This name is also mentioned under Al-Jawād (The Generous), Al-Majīd (The Ever-Noble), and Dhul-Jalāli wal-Ikrām (Possessor of Majesty and Bounty).

Use in Prayer

The Holy Prophetsa said, “Indeed, Allah is Hayiyy (One Who acts with others in the manner of him who has shyness, because shyness in its proper sense is not ascribable to Allah Almighty (Lane’s Lexicon, Root: حى Entry: حَيِىٌّ)), and He is Karīm (Generous). When a servant raises his hands and supplicates, Allah the Almighty feels shy in returning them to him empty and rejected.” (Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitab al-witr, Bab ad-du‘a)

The name Al-Karīm (The Generous) reminds us that Allah Almighty has no reluctance in accepting our prayers. If anything, His being honourable and generous means He is reluctant to reject our prayers. When we say Yā Karīm (O Generous!), we let go of our previous estimates of how much we thought He was willing to give us, and we are inspired to beg Him for greater blessings.

46. Yā Jawād – O Generous! – يا جواد


The root of jawād means bountiful or generous. Jawād means one who gives without being asked to preserve the receiver from the embarrassment of asking. (Lane’s Lexicon, Root: جود Entry: جود، جَوَادٌ) Al-Jawād means The Generous.

Similar Names

Al-Karīm (The Generous) and Al-Jawād (The Generous) are synonymous. The difference is that Al-Karīm additionally has the meaning of honour and nobility.

When the meanings of generosity in karīm and jawād are contrasted, the word karīm emphasises giving after being asked, and jawād emphasises giving before being asked. (Kashf al-Ma’na ‘an Sirr Asma Allah al-Husna, Ibn Arabi, (43) Al-Ism: Al-Karīm)

This name is also mentioned under Al-Mājid (The Noble).

Use in Prayer

When we ask that Allah Almighty be generous to us, we should naturally have this quality in us. If we find that we are miserly, the name Al-Jawād (The Generous) reminds us to try and fulfil the needs of the needy before they have to express their need to us. The Holy Prophetsa said, “Allah is […] generous (Karīm) and likes generosity; He is munificent (Jawād) and likes munificence.” (Jami’ at-Tirmidhi, Kitab al-adab, Bab aa ja’a fi n-nazafah)

When we say Yā Jawād (O Generous), we are reminded that Allah Almighty knows those needs of ours that even we may not know, and we ask Him to fulfil them for us without our asking.

No posts to display


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here