Power of preaching: Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud’s correspondence with world leaders

Awwab Saad Hayat, Al Hakam

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud, Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmad, Khalifatul Masih II’sra, passion for preaching was not limited to a specific country, nation, or social class. Huzoorra shared his knowledge and illuminated the hearts of kings, governors, statesmen, and monarchs with his guidance. He also sent letters inviting them to embrace Islam.

In the first year of his Khilafat, during a speech before a sitting of the Majlis-e-Mushawarat, he expressed his passion for preaching in the following words:

“As far as I have pondered, I do not know the reason for the great passion, instilled within me, for preaching the message of Islam that I have had since childhood. This feeling for tabligh [preaching] is indescribable. From a young age, I have sought prayers and eagerly desired for any work related to Islam to be accomplished through my efforts. I cannot recall when this tendency first appeared, but I have always felt this zeal in my heart.

“It is my hope that [my preaching efforts are so vast], that there will never be an era where my students, who will serve Islam, are not present. I still struggle to understand why I have been instilled with such passion and love for the service of Islam, but I know that this love has been with me from the beginning. I have prayed to God Almighty that I may play a role in the preaching of Islam, and I am grateful to God that He has answered my prayers with great tidings.” (Mansab-e-Khilafat, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 2, pp. 35-36)

In the prophecy regarding the Promised Son, it was stated that the son would bear a resemblance to the Promised Messiahas. This comparison serves to highlight the significance of the Promised Son and his connection to his father, the Promised Messiahas, and emphasises that the Promised Son will embody the traits and qualities of the Promised Messiahas.

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra fulfilled the responsibility of introducing Islam to the Crown Prince of Great Britain, in accordance with the preaching tradition of the Promised Messiahas. He also gave A Gift for the Queen and Star of the Empress to them.

He also trained and equipped dedicated preachers to carry the message of Islam to every corner of the world, across shores and continents. Under the guidance of Huzoor’sra spiritual vision, these pioneer missionaries fearlessly preached Islam to all classes of people, including government officials and chiefs, as they shored the world. The full details of their efforts under the guidance of Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra would warrant a separate book.

When one reads the works and writings of Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra and the knowledge found in them, one is struck by his devotion to religion and humanity. He would spend his nights in service and remain dedicated from the dawn’s first light to the stillness of the night.

Given his immense passion for serving Islam, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra dedicated the evenings and dawns of his youth to the propagation of Islam, sacrificing as much as he could for this cause. For instance, when Rev. Dr White Brecht gave a lecture against Islam at a missionary conference in Cairo, Egypt, the young Hazrat Sahibzada Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmadra wrote a powerful article to dispel the misunderstandings that had been spread. This article was published in the April 1908 issue of the magazine Tashheez-ul-Azhan.


At the age of 20, in the city of Lahore, a friend took the then-young Hazrat Sahibzada Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmad to meet a priest named Mr Wood, who was the principal of a missionary college. Despite his age, the young Sahibzada Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmadra not only answered the principal’s questions with clarity, but also guided him by presenting his well-reasoned position based on the teachings of Islam. (Tarikh-e-Ahmadiyyat, Vol. 4, p. 81)

A review of the titles of the great articles, which were written and published by the young Sahibzada Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmad in the magazine Tashheez-ul-Azhan throughout the year 1909 is sufficient to showcase his exceptional knowledge, preaching abilities, and research inclinations.

A Gift to Kings

Tohfat-ul-Muluk is a letter from Hazrat Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmadra to Mir Osman Ali Khan Sahib, the Nizam of Hyderabad, the largest princely state in British India.

According to Tarikh Ahmadiyyat, Huzoorra was inspired to write this treatise in a dream. He authored Tohfat-ul-Muluk in June 1914. This was the first article or book written by him after he was blessed with the mantle of Khilafat. When the draft of this book was complete, Huzoorra read it aloud to the people of Qadian during a meeting after the Asr prayer. (Tarikh Ahmadiyyat, Vol. 4, p. 155)

Hazrat Munshi Abdul Haqra was tasked with binding the book. This book was printed in a most elegant design and sent to the Nizam of Hyderabad. Many copies were also distributed among various individuals and sections of the society in that region.

For this effort, Hazrat Hakeem Muhammad Hussain Qureshira, and later Hazrat Maulana Syed Muhammad Sarwar Shahra and Hazrat Mufti Muhammad Sadiqra were dispatched to Hyderabad to preach there for three months.

Tohfat-ul-Muluk was not only sent to the Nizam of Hyderabad, but also to other government officials. The book’s impact was significant and influential, leading many people, such as Seth Abdullah Allah Din, to embrace Islam Ahmadiyyat. Seth Abdullah was a wealthy and influential member of the Ismaili sect, who devoted much of his wealth to spreading the message of the Promised Messiahas. Through his efforts, he reached out to the English scholarly class and successfully converted many individuals to Islam Ahmadiyyat. The book’s spiritual power and blessings were evident in its ability to attract new followers to the movement.

Hazrat Dr Karam Ilahira once stated that an atheist, after reading Tohfat-ul-Muluk, commented that the author displays such a powerful and compelling writing style that no person could resist its impact.

Letter to the Governor of Bhopal

On 16 September 1914, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra wrote a letter to Nawab Sultan Jahan Begum Sahiba, Grand Commander of the Star of India and Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire of Walia Bhopal, through Hazrat Mian Miraj Din Umarra. In the letter, Huzoorra specifically mentioned the fulfilment of the sign of the Promised Messiahas in Bhopal with regards to Nawab Siddique Hasan Khan and offered to send scholars from the Jamaat to Bhopal for a few days, if desired, to educate the residents of Bhopal about the history and teachings of the Jamaat.

The text of this letter was first published in the May 1941 issue of The Review of Religions (Urdu). This was made possible through the efforts of Fazl Hussain Muhajir Sahib.

A letter to a ruling state

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra wrote a letter to a ruling state, inviting them to embrace Islam. The ruler of the state asked a critical question regarding the claim of Hazrat Ahmad, the Promised Messiah. In response to this, Huzoorra not only wrote a comprehensive letter, but also sent the books Tohfat-ul-Muluk and Haqiqat-un-Nubuwwah. This letter can be found in the May 1915 issue of The Review of Religions, in Urdu. It is believed that the letter was likely sent to the State of Rampur.

A response to a state leader

After hearing about the remarkable and significant preaching efforts of Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra, a state leader expressed his desire, through his confidant, for Huzoorra to visit him. He stated that he wanted to learn more about the Ahmadiyya Jamaat. Huzoorra replied by saying that it was the thirsty who journeyed to the well, not the reverse. Huzoorra offered to send scholars from the Jamaat to the state leader, provided that he would take full responsibility for their protection and well-being. (Al Fazl, 20 July, 1915)

Letter of invitation to Amir Amaullah Khan

One of Hazrat Khalifatul Masih II’sra most significant books and letters of invitation to Islam is Dawat-ul-Amir, which was sent to Afghanistan.

In 1924, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra published a comprehensive book entitled Dawat-ul-Amir, addressed to Amir Amanullah Khan, the King of Afghanistan.

Through the study of history, we find evidence that before sending the book, Huzoorra had sent Abdul Ahad Khan Afghan Sahib with a letter to Afghanistan. Hazrat Maulana Ubaidullahra translated the book into Persian. Initially, it was planned for the book to be sent through the post to the Amir of Kabul. However, Hazrat Syed Waliullah Shahra and Naik Mohammad Khan Ghaznavi travelled to Bombay, where Mahmud Tarazi, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Afghanistan, was given the book Dawat-ul-Amir and requested to deliver it to the Amir of Kabul.

In this exceptional book, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IIra thoroughly explained the beliefs of the Ahmadiyya community regarding the mission of the Promised Messiahas and outlined twelve significant fulfillments of his prophecies. The book concluded with these words:

“Accept the ma’mur [appointee] of Allah, for this will bring you peace and serenity. Embrace the message of peace that you may take part in peace. My responsibility today has been fulfilled by delivering the message of Allah to you. The choice to accept or reject it now lies solely with you.”

Alas, Amir Amanullah Khan not only rejected this heavenly and noble gift and refused God’s protection, but with extreme arrogance and pride, he inflicted many atrocities upon the helpless and oppressed Ahmadis. However, in 1929, his throne was overthrown, forcing Amir Amanullah Khan to flee Kandahar and then to Bombay, before seeking asylum in Italy. He lived a secluded and anonymous life for many years before passing away on 3 April 1960.

Although Amir Amanullah disregarded the significance of the book Dawat-ul-Amir in his pursuit and greed for power, it has served as a source of guidance for numerous individuals on their spiritual journey. One notable example is Khan Faqir Muhammad Sahib, who became an Ahmadi as a result of reading this remarkable book.

A gift to Lord Irwin

Lord Irwin was appointed Viceroy of India in 1926 and served in this position until 1931. He was known for his good nature, compassion, and religious values, setting a high moral standard throughout his five-year rule.

When Lord Irwin was about to leave India, many people presented him with material gifts; however, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra, being a champion of Islam, wrote a book titled Gift to Lord Darwin within a span of five days from 27 to 31 March 1931. This was then presented to Lord Irwin as a gift.

A Present to His Royal Highness – The Prince of Wales

In 1921, when the Prince of Wales (who later became King Edward VIII and abdicated in 1936 due to his disagreement with the Church of England, and was thereafter known as the Duke of Windsor) visited India, Hazrat Khalifatul Masihra presented him with a unique gift. Huzoorra wrote a magnificent book called A Present to His Royal Highness – The Prince of Wales. Over 3200 individuals contributed one anna each towards the publication of this book. On 27 February 1922, the members of the Jamaat presented the book to the Prince in Lahore.

The book was translated into English by Hazrat Chaudhry Muhammad Zafarulla Khanra. Hazrat Maulvi Sher Alira himself travelled to Bombay to oversee its publication.

The Prince of Wales held this gift in high regard and expressed his gratitude through his Chief Secretary. He also thoroughly read it during his journey from Lahore to Jammu on 1 March 1922. (Tarikh-e-Ahmadiyyat, Vol. 4, p. 293) 

Letters to the Pope

During his historic trip to Europe in 1924, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra made two attempts to enlighten the Roman Catholic Pope about the true teachings of Islam. The Pope’s refusal to accept the invitation was seen as a historical act of irresponsibility, not only by the foreigners, but also by the people of Islam. Huzoorra, on behalf of the Muslim Ummah, sent a call for peace and security to the People of the Book, however, the Pope declined.

The Holy Quran invites the People of the Book saying:

قُلۡ يٰۤاَهۡلَ الۡكِتٰبِ تَعَالَوۡا اِلٰي كَلِمَةٍ سَوَآءٍۢ بَيۡنَنَا وَبَيۡنَكُمۡ اَلَّا نَعۡبُدَ اِلَّا اللّٰهَ وَلَا نُشۡرِكَ بِهٖ شَيۡئًا وَّلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعۡضُنَا بَعۡضًا اَرۡبَابًا مِّنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰهِ ؕ فَاِنۡ تَوَلَّوۡا فَقُوۡلُوا اشۡهَدُوۡا بِاَنَّا مُسۡلِمُوۡنَ

“Say, ‘O People of the Book! come to a word equal between us and you — that we worship none but Allah, and that we associate no partner with Him, and that some of us take not others for Lords beside Allah.’ But if they turn away, then say, ‘Bear witness that we have submitted to [God].’” (Surah Aal-e-`Imran, Ch. 3: V.65)

The Pope failed to respond to Huzoor’sra message of cooperation for the elimination of polytheism from the world. At the time, the Pope was Ambrogio Damiano Achille Cardinal Ratti. He was elected as the Bishop of Rome on 6 February 1922, at the age of 64, and passed away on 10 February 1939.

In this context, during his Friday Sermon on 23 August 1957, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra said:

“When I visited Europe in 1924, I stayed in Rome as well. There, I wrote to the Pope, saying, ‘You are the leader of the Christians, and I am the leader of Islam. I invite you for a meeting so that we can have a one-to-one talk about Islam and Christianity.’ In response, the Pope’s secretary wrote to me that ‘the Pope was not feeling well and thus he cannot meet.’ During the same days, the editor of an Italian newspaper, who was a socialist, came to meet me. That newspaper published 12 papers daily. […] He said to me, ‘You have come here for the first time, so it is a good opportunity, you should try to meet the Pope, which will give us a chance to listen to the views of the leaders of both Muslims and Christians’. I responded that I had myself invited him for a meeting, but his secretary replied that the Pope was not feeling well. He said, ‘you should write to him again, just for my sake.’ I said, ‘It means that you wish to dishonour me, because he would not come to meet.’ He said, ‘From this, your respect in our eyes increases, instead of decreasing.’ […] I wrote another letter on his insistence, and in response, his chief secretary wrote that ‘the Pope’s palace is nowadays under repair, so I am afraid he cannot have a meeting.’ After some days, the same editor came to meet me and inquired if there was any response from the pope, I replied, ‘Yes, he has given this response, you may read it.’ Upon reading that letter, he became furious, and said that he would write about this issue in his newspaper. […] Thereafter, in the next day’s issue, he wrote a lengthy article and stated that ‘Currently, there has come a very big leader of the Muslims who wrote a letter to the Pope and invited him for a meeting so that a mutual discussion about Islam and Christianity may take place. We think that it was a very good opportunity and in the event of a meeting, we might know to what extent our leader [Pope] and the Muslims’ leader are acquainted with their religion. But the Pope’s chief secretary responded that the Pope’s palace is nowadays under repair, so he cannot meet.’ After that, he wrote as a taunt, ‘We believe that from now on the Pope’s palace will remain under repair till the Day of Judgment.’” (Khutbat-e-Mahmud, Vol. 38, pp. 186-187)

In accordance with the tradition of pious individuals, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IIra propagated the true teachings of Islam to some of the kings of his era. The outcomes of this invitation are a valuable part of history. However, a review of history and the rulers Huzoorra addressed shows that male rulers were not always blessed with the wisdom granted to Queen Sheba.

In an edition of Hazrat Qazi Muhammad Yusuf Peshawari’sra, book Shuhada-ul-Haq, the publisher, Hakim Muhammad Abdul Latif Shahid, has expressed his opinion in a footnote on page one:

“Today, we witness the great miracle of the Divine Power, and [Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud’sra] faith-inspiring miraculousness that whenever any of those kings did not pay heed to his invitation, and showed carelessness, Allah the Almighty snatched from them all of their ruling powers.” 

In further elaboration, Hakim Muhammad Abdul Latif Shahid continues by providing a few instances to support his argument. Firstly, he mentions the Nizam of Hyderabad, who was overthrown in the Deccan region. He also references Amir Amanullah, who was exiled to Italy. He cites Lord Irwin, a former Viceroy of India, who was later stripped of all authority. 

As we come to the end of this article on Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud’sra fervent dedication and passion for the cause of spreading Islam, let us take a moment to reflect on our responsibilities as Muslims who have pledged allegiance to the Holy Prophet Muhammadsa and accepted the Messiah of the age. In a powerful Friday sermon, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih Vaa said:

“May Allah the Almighty send thousands of blessings upon Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra and may He continue to elevate his station. Just like this son of the Promised Messiahas, may we also instil the passion within our hearts for the spread of Islam and may we be ever ready to serve Islam. May we be counted amongst those who truly serve their faith and not among those regarding whom Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra stated that ‘Let it not be the case that the community is defamed in your time.’ (Kalam-e-Mahmud, p.97)” (Al Hakam, 20 March 2020, issue 105 , p. 27)

Remember, if we truly desire to be recipients of Allah’s love, we must adhere to following in the footsteps of His beloved one. Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra once said:

مجھ ‬كو‭ ‬اِك‭ ‬آتش‭ ‬فشاں‭ ‬پُروَلولہ‭ ‬دل‭ ‬كی‭ ‬تلاش

“I search for a heart throbbing with passion; like an active volcano ready to erupt.” (Al Fazl, 27 April 1946, Vol. 34, no. 99)

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